Presentation on theme: "APA Workshop for Students. Writing Well (& Avoiding Plagiarism) Do not wait until the last minute Base your paper on your own ideas Use quotes, paraphrases,"— Presentation transcript:
Writing Well (& Avoiding Plagiarism) Do not wait until the last minute Base your paper on your own ideas Use quotes, paraphrases, and summaries correctly and effectively Cite sources correctly in your paper and on your reference list Check your work
What to Cite* Things not from your own head Information (facts, examples, stats, charts, pictures, etc.) found in a source Other people’s original ideas Things that are not “common knowledge” Common knowledge = something an educated person should know or could easily find out; something found in several sources about the topic *Cite = name the source
How to Use Source Material 1. USE IT Quote: use exact words of source in quotation marks. Short quotes are best. Also, introduce the speaker to give quote credibility. Paraphrase: restate source material in your own words, word order, AND sentence structure. Summarize: restate only main ideas in your own words, using fewer words. 2. CITE IT name source where you found material this is done with in-text citations
In-text Citations Use immediately after (or before) source information General form Blah blah blah (Author’s Last Name, Year, p. #). This is from a source (Griffin, 2006, p. 5). If you use the author’s name in your text According to Author (Year), blah blah blah (p. #). According to Griffin (2006), this is right (p. 5). Every source you cite in your paper will be put on your reference page.
How to Do In-Text Citations Learn the rules on p. 58 of the style guide (Author’s last name, Year). Or (Author’s last name, n.d.). (as cited in Author’s last name, Year). (“Title,” Year). Or ( Title, Year). Find the situation of your source on pp. 59-60 One author Organization as author Two authors Etc. (there are 12 possible situations) Follow the basic form provided.
Using Quotations, Paraphrases & Summaries Effectively Introduce and explain them to the reader Source material is the middle of a SANDWICH: BREAD: -your own idea to support FILLING: -connection (introduce speaker) -source material (q, p, s) -in-text citation -connection BREAD: - explanation of what source means and how it supports your idea
Reference List A separate page at the end of the paper listing all sources used in the paper Complete and correct source information given in a standardized format If APA style is followed correctly, reference lists for all papers look the same!
Reference List Rules Header with title and page # “References” in top center All lines double-spaced Times New Roman 12-point 1-inch, unjustified margins Hanging indent Alphabetical order Italics in every entry Addresses (not underlined) divided before punctuation mark
Reference List & In-text Citations Reference List: Adler, K. (2003, October 11). The unreality of literature today. Time Out. Retrieved from ProQuest Research Library database. Not a single nuclear weapon has been sold or stolen. (2004, February 10). RIA Novosti. Retrieved from LexisNexis database. In-text citation: Books are no longer expressions of authors' insights on life (Adler, 2003). Russia spent $2 billion to upgrade security at nuclear weapons facilities in 2003 (“Not a single nuclear weapon,” 2004).
Making a Reference List, pp. 31-33 Set up the format of the reference list (see p. 30). Determine whether you have a print source, source from an online database, online source, other source, or personal communication. Determine which type of source you have (the types/forms and explanations are listed on pp. 31-33). Find the Form for your source in the guide. Read the directions and follow the basic form in the box to make your source entry. Pay close attention to detail. Look at the examples under the box for help. Read the FAQs (pp. 54-56) for more help. Put your sources in alphabetical order (p. 57). Compare your list to the example list on p. 67.
References: Books Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of book italicized: Notice where the capital letters are (edition number if available). City of publisher: Publisher’s name. Krugman, P. (2005). The great unraveling: Losing our way in the new century. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
References: Newspaper Article Author, A. A. (Year, Month day). Title of article: Subtitle too with only first words capitalized. Newspaper Name Capitalized, p. #. Bauwau, J. (1999, January 23). Research shows dogs useful in rehabilitation. New York Dog Times, p. 12.
References: Newspaper Article from an online database Author, A. A. (Year, Month day). Title of article: Subtitle too. Newspaper Name Capitalized, p. # of print version. Retrieved from XYZ database. Same as a print newspaper, magazine, or journal article, with the name of the database after “Retrieved from” Bauwau, J. (1999, January 23). Research shows dogs useful in rehabilitation. New York Dog Times, p. 12. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
References: Internet Sources Hewitt, D. (2000, March 23). China battles obesity. BBC News. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/760787 Himalayan Trust. (n.d.). Education in the Solokhumbu. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www.himalayan-trust.org/Schooling.htm National Intelligence Council. (2002, February). Annual report to Congress on the safety and security of Russian nuclear facilities and military forces. Retrieved from Federation of American Scientists website: http://www.fas.org/irp/nic /russia0406.html Oosten, C., & Livingston, M. (2006, July 21). Pest management practices. In Agricultural Resources and Environmental Indicators 2006 (chap. 4.3). Retrieved from http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/arei/eib16/Chapter4/4.3
APA Paper Format Papers should follow a standard format unless your instructor says otherwise. In general, CityU’s chosen format includes TITLE PAGE HEADER TEXT
Title Page: Example Birth Control Pills 1 Birth Control Pills: A Safe Choice for Women Gabriela Zurikova firstname.lastname@example.org IEP 060 – Writing VI Anne Whitaker Research Paper August 30, 2004 Header: first few words of title, 5 spaces, page number Title: centered; double-spaced interesting; specific phrase; capitalized Information about assignment, double-spaced
Text Page: Example Birth Control Pills 2 Janka (24) bought a pregnancy test and now is waiting for the results, which makes her nervous. One second may change her whole life, and she could become the mother of an unwanted child. To avoid this stressful situation, it was only necessary to have used a 43-year-old method of birth control – the birth control pill – once a day. It has been taken by approximately 80% of American women today (Okie, 2002), and its effectiveness is over 99% if used correctly (Planned Parenthood, 2003). However, some women still fear that taking the birth control pill could harm their health. In fact, the pill’s composition provides advantages to women, including prevention of ovarian cancer. Moreover, there is no connection between the pill and breast cancer, and its usage is possible during breastfeeding too. Although there are also a few disadvantages to its use, the birth control pill is safe for women. Birth control pills contain nothing harmful to women’s health. This oral contraception is divided into two groups. First are combination pills including estrogen and progestin (synthetic progesterone) hormones like those produced in the ovaries, and second are progestin-only-pills (Planned Parenthood, 2003). So they contain the same hormones as women’s bodies produce. Estrogen is a hormone which makes the evolution of the uterus Birth Control Pills 4 long use of pills is not a bad decision because it not only protects against unwanted pregnancy, it also helps to prevent cancer for a long time in the future. So, especially women whose mothers or grandmothers had ovarian cancer are protecting themselves in the right way by taking birth control pills. Another claim is that birth control pills may cause breast cancer, which is a blunder. The truth is that not only 20- to 30-year-old women, but also women in their 40s, 50s and 60s do not have a higher chance of getting breast cancer just because they used oral contraceptives. According to a study in The New England Journal of Medicine called the Women's Contraceptive and Reproductive Experience study, of 9,200 women between 35 to 64, where half of them had a breast cancer diagnosis, there was no evidence of increased breast cancer risk if a woman had used birth control pills (as cited in National Cancer Institute, 2003). So, especially women in their 40s and 50s, who are at risk of getting breast cancer because of their age, do not have to be afraid of taking the pill because it does not affect this condition. There is also another interesting fact about women with a history of breast cancer in their families. The study showed that women with breast cancer in their families did not have a higher risk if they took the pill (as cited in Okie, 2002). So, women having breast cancer in the past are free to use