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Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 1 In Mixed Company Chapter Nine Power in Groups: A Central Dynamic.

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Presentation on theme: "Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 1 In Mixed Company Chapter Nine Power in Groups: A Central Dynamic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 1 In Mixed Company Chapter Nine Power in Groups: A Central Dynamic

2 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 2 The Nature of Power: No One is Powerless Power is group-centered, the power you wield is dependent on the relationships you have with group members. No group member is completely powerless, the interconnectedness of components in as system means that all group members have some influence even if it is to resist or to defy the group.

3 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 3 Forms of Power: Competition and Cooperation Revisited Dominance of power over others flows from a hierarchal structure or from differences in status among group members. Prevention, or power from the efforts of others to influence. Empowerment, enhancing the capabilities and influence of individuals and groups. Empowerment is power to accomplish your own group or help others achieve theirs through process of group potency, meaningfulness, autonomy, and impact. An effective leader actively seeks to increase the readiness levels of followers, thereby empowering them to accomplish tasks without the leader watching their every move.

4 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 4 General Indicators, Labeling, Following, and Opposing Those who define others exercise control. Ordinarily we define people by attaching a label to them. Whose decisions are followed is a second general indictor of power in a group. The individual with the position of authority in a group may not be the person with the most power. Who opposes significant change is a third general indicator of power. Those who have been accorded power by the group are usually uncomfortable with chance that goes much beyond a little fine-tuning.

5 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 5 Verbal Indicators In general, group members who use more powerful language patterns are perceived to be more credible,attractive, and persuasive than those using less powerful language. Verbal dominance is also indicated by competitive interrupting, contradicting, and sheer quantity of speech. Monopolizing conversation in these ways has obvious power implications.

6 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 6 Nonverbal Indicators: Silent Power Space is the prerogative of the powerful (best offices) Posture and gesture communication are also markedly different for super-ordinates and subordinates. Touch clearly indicates power relationships in groups. The less powerful often feel required to yield to the touch of their superiors even when the touching triggers uncomfortable feelings.

7 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 7 Nonverbal Indicators: Silent Power Eye contact is yet another nonverbal indicator of relative degrees of power. Nonverbal symbols include a wide variety of objects and tangible materials: large desks, windows, leather chairs, company cars etc.

8 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 8 Power Resources A power resource is “anything that enables individuals to move toward their own goals or interfere with another's actions. Five resources to group situations: 1.Information 2.Expertise 3.Punishments/ Eewards 4.Personal Qualities 5.Legitimate Authority

9 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 9 Information: Restricted or Scarce Information assumes value or usefulness when it is perceived to be unavailable. Information becomes unavailable primarily from restrictions and scarcity. The competent communicator can capitalize on information as a power resource: 1.Provide useful but scarce or restricted information to the group. 2.Be certain information is accurate, sharing information could earn you the hostility of the group.

10 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 10 Expertise: Knowing and Showing Experts not only have valuable and useful information for a group, but they also understand the information and know how to use it to help the group. The group must be convinced that the person has the requisites skills, abilities, knowledge, and background to function as a real expert. The person who has been accorded status as an expert must demonstrate trustworthiness. Power is not derived from expertise if the group suspects that the expert will lie for personal gain.

11 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 11 Expertise: Knowing and Showing 1.Maintain skills, abilities, and knowledge currency. 2.Demonstrate trustworthiness and credibility. 3.Be certain of your facts before advising the group. 4.Don’t assume an air of superiority.

12 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 12 Rewards An extrinsic reward motivates us to behave or perform by offering us an external inducement such as money, grades, recognition. An intrinsic reward is enjoying what one does for its own sake. An intrinsic reward motivates us to continue doing what brings us pleasure.

13 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 13 Rewards & Punishments Punishments should be the last resort. Punishment should be appropriate to the act. Punishment should be swift and certain. Be generous with praise that is warranted. Determine what rewards group members value before offering any. Administer both punishments and rewards equitably and fairly.

14 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 14 Legitimate Authority Power can be derived from the shared belief that some individuals have legitimate right to influence and direct our behavior by virtue of the roles that they play. We are not inclined to comply with directives from those individuals acting authoritatively but who are not deemed legitimate.

15 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 15 Legitimate Authority Become an authority figure (appointed and emergent leaders) Gain Legitimacy (accepting group rules & standards) Encourage participative decision making Act ethically

16 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 16 Compliance Group Power Compliance is the process of consenting to the dictates and desires of others. Compliance involves both obedience to authority and conformity to the group norms. Conforming to group norms can sometimes prove to be more powerful tendency than obeying authority.

17 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 17 Alliance: Coalition Formation Alliances are associations in the form of subgroups entered into for mutual benefit or a common objective. Because coalitions can change the distribution of power in a group, coalition formation is typically adversarial, competitive, and contentious. Coalitions are formed not simply to advance goals of the allied members, but also to prevent the attainment of non-coalition members goals. Resistance is a covert form of communicating non- compliances and it is often duplicitous and manipulative.

18 Speech 140 Chapter 9 Power in Groups A central Dynamic 18 Resistance 1.Confront the strategy directly. 2.Thwart the enabling process. We become enablers when we allow ourselves to become ensnared in the resister’s net of duplicity. When we wait for tardy members, or perform their tasks for them we enable their resistance. 3.Give clear directions regarding specific tasks.


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