Presentation on theme: "School Leadership that Works:"— Presentation transcript:
1School Leadership that Works: School Leadership that Works: From Research to Results Marzano, Waters, and McNulty 2005Marzano ties Principal behaviors to student achievement and provides examples of what each should look like. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD)
2School Leadership that Works From Research to Results The 21 Responsibilities of the School LeaderTwo Types of ChangeDoing the Right WorkA Plan for Effective Leadership1. Research: Marzano conducted a meta-analysis (quantitative research) of 69 studies over the last 35 years which reviewed teacher surveys of principal behaviors and student achievement and they found that the principal can have a profound effect on the student achievement. They computed an average correlation of .25 between the leadership behavior of the principal and the average academic achievement of students in the school. Up to that point researchers had really questioned whether principals had any impact on student achievement – of course we do, Marzano assigned a number to it.What does this mean? With an average principal in an average school (both are in the 50th percentile) - if you increase the principal’s leadership ability by one standard deviation – from the 50th percentile to the 84th percentile – you will see an increase in student achievement from the 50th percentile to the 60th percentile.You can also see a correlation in terms of school effectiveness. Typical students in effective schools as opposed to ineffective schools have a 44% difference (72%/28%) in their passing rate on a test with an expected pass rate of 50%.2. 21 Responsibilities: Through this research, Marzano identified 21 responsibilities or specific behaviors of school principals that impact student achievement. What is it specifically that effective principals do in their schools.They are similar to Kathleen Cotton’s 25 Leadership Practices (2003). She conducted a qualitative meta analysis of principal behaviors.3. Two Types of Change: A factor analysis showed how the 21 responsibilities interact and how they are applied for change. What Marzano found was that when a school is involved in the day-to-day (first order) changes, or the next logical step type of change, all 21 principal responsibilities are important but to varying degrees. When a school is involved in dramatic (second order) change, the principal must emphasize certain responsibilities and minimize others. So different skills are important for different types of changes.4. Doing the Right Work: (Effective School Reform) The principal’s ability to select right work is crucial for effective leadership and improving student achievement. Many schools work “hard” but not “smart” in that they select interventions that have little chance of improving student achievement. Marzano recommends focusing on 11 factors broken up into thre categories (school-level, teacher-level, and student-level) that research and experience has shown us can have an impact on student achievement. See Marzano, R.J. (2003). What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action5. A Plan for Effective Leadership: We clearly cannot do it alone and even if we do, it is not sustainable.Develop a strong school leadership team. Distribute 12 of the 21 responsibilities throughout the team (leaving 9 responsibilities with the principal). Select the “right work” or the “right reforms” to improve achievement in your school. And choose appropriate responsibilities for the change you want.
3The 21 Responsibilities of the School Leader AffirmationChange AgentContingent RewardsCommunicationCultureDisciplineFlexibilityFocusIdeals/BeliefsInputIntellectual StimulationInvolvementKnowledgeMonitoring/EvaluatingOptimizerOrderOutreachRelationshipsResourcesSituational AwarenessVisibilityIt shouldn’t surprise any of us that these behaviors are considered traits of good principals. Consider how is each trait or behavior is linked to higher achievement and think about the obstacles a principal might face in trying to implement these into his practice.
41. AffirmationSystematically and fairly recognizing and celebrating the accomplishments of students and teachersSystematically and fairly recognizing the failures of the schoolAffirmation is the extent to which the principal recognizes and celebrates school accomplishments – and acknowledges and learns from failures. The biggest obstacle to affirmation is ensuring fairness, especially perceived fairness. Fairness in this context requires a commitment to building strong relationships, capacity and trust with faculty and staff.How do we demonstrate a commitment to affirmation?What have I done?School web page – a celebration section that I refer to at faculty meetings and Board meetings – “Spotlight” – it highlights the work of students and their teachersPresent engagement and achievement data at faculty meetings
52. Change Agent Consciously challenging the status quo Willing to lead change initiatives with uncertain outcomesSystematically considering new and better ways of doing thingsConsistently attempting to operate at the edge versus the center of the school’s competenceA Change Agent is willing to challenge the status quo and temporarily upset a school’s equilibrium. A major obstacle to the principal’s ability to act as a change agent is the lack of a plan to focus district resources, including financial resources, on change. A systematic plan for school improvement where shared goals are established and common problems identified, empowers a principal to act.How do we demonstrate our commitment to being a change agent?What have I done? Focusing on CurriculumCreate the Curriculum and Instruction Advisory Team to develop a curriculum improvement process and a model of instruction for Schenevus Central SchoolLead the Curriculum and Instruction Advisory Team to create a curriculum template and focus financial resources on this initiativeLead the Curriculum and Instruction Advisory Team to create consensus on the need to develop a Schenevus Central School framework of instruction
63. Contingent RewardsUsing hard work and results as the basis for rewards and recognitionUsing performance versus seniority as a primary criterion for rewards and recognitionContingent rewards refers to the extent to which the principal recognizes and rewards individual accomplishments. Perceived fairness in evaluating ‘hard work and performance’ can make this extremely difficult to pull off.How do we demonstrate our commitment to contingent rewards?What have I done? Personal one-on-one recognition. Otherwise I have no idea.
74. CommunicationDeveloping effective means for teachers to communicate with one anotherBeing easily accessible to teachersMaintaining open and effective lines of communication with staffCommunication refers to the extent to which the principal establishes strong lines of communication with and between teachers and students. The principal has the responsibility to build capacity for communication in their school. Everyone should feel like they are being heard. Building capacity for communication has little financial cost but significant cost in terms of time. However, the pay off for this investment can be enormous. Improved teacher morale and retention and improved student achievement are examples.How do we demonstrate a commitment to communication?What have I done?Open-door policy, smile a lotShare responsibility with committees. Each committee (CIAT, Technology) will create brochures - one for teachers and one for parentsSchool Web Page as a school portfolioWalk Thrus
85. Culture Promoting cohesion among staff Promoting a sense of well-being among staffDeveloping an understanding of purpose among staffDeveloping a shared vision of what the school could be likeCulture refers to the extent to which the principal fosters shared beliefs and a sense of community and cooperation among staff. It also refers to the extent to which the principal understands and appreciates a school’s history and culture. Developing a shared vision takes a great deal of time and return on the investment takes years to see – follow through is essential otherwise it will be perceived as another flavor-of-the month educational trend.How do we demonstrate our commitment to developing a positive culture?What do I do?Lead with humility and empathyEmphasize collaboration to improve curriculum and instruction – “all teaching and learning all the time”
96. Discipline Protecting instructional time from interruptions Protecting teachers from internal and external distractionsDiscipline refers to protecting teachers from issues and influences that would detract from their instructional time or focus. EVERYONE wants the principal to focus on discipline and too many school districts focus only on this principal trait. The challenge of this principal responsibility is that if too much focus is placed on it, other responsibilities will suffer. The myth of the lone ranger Super Principal is often perpetuated by the principals that punish students and hug teachers and not much else.How do we demonstrate a commitment to discipline?What have I done?Develop discipline procedures that workShare discipline responsibilities – examples: teacher assigned lunch detention, counsel students first
107. FlexibilityAdapting leadership style to the needs of specific situationsBeing directive or nondirective as the situation warrantsEncouraging people to express diverse and contrary opinionsBeing comfortable with making major changes in how things are doneFlexibility refers to the extent to which leaders adapt to the needs of the current situation and are comfortable with dissent. Flexibility implies personalized leadership.How do we demonstrate a commitment to flexibility?How am I flexible?Tight on principle, loose on how we get there.Remember it’s not personal.
118. FocusEstablishing concrete goals for curriculum, instruction, and assessment practices within the schoolEstablishing concrete goals for the general functioning of the schoolEstablishing high, concrete goals, and expectations that all students will meet themContinually keeping attention on established goalsFocus refers to the extent to which the principal helps establish clear shared goals (as a part of a professional learning community) and keeps those goals in the forefront of the school’s attention.How do we provide focus?How do I provide focus?Use professional learning communities to improve curriculum and instruction and increase student achievementSpecific goals – curriculum improvement process, scheduled changes for next year to allow for plc meetings, and creating a model of instruction (this is more about the conversation than the actual model)
129. Ideals/BeliefsPossessing well-defined beliefs about schools, teaching, and learningSharing beliefs about school, teaching, and learning with the staffDemonstrating practices that are consistent with beliefsIdeals and beliefs refers to the principal’s vision for a school. The challenge is the effort, time, and money to be devoted to continuous learning.Have well-defined beliefs about schools, teaching, and learning.How do we demonstrate and share our ideals/beliefs?What have I done?1. Focus my efforts in school on collaboration to improve curriculum and instruction and delegate other responsibilities as much as possible.
1310. InputProviding opportunities for staff to be involved in developing school policiesProviding for staff input on all important decisionsUsing leadership teams in decision makingInput refers to the extent to which the principal involves teachers in the design and implementation of important decisions and policies. The challenge of teacher input is the principal may not like the input he or she gets.How do we demonstrate our commitment to staff input?What have I done? Committees work on school-level factors.Curriculum and Instruction Advisory Team will make major curriculum and instruction decisionsTechnology CommitteeRecess CommitteeDiscipline Committee
1411. Intellectual Stimulation Continually exposing staff to cutting-edge research and theory on effective schoolingKeeping informed about current research and theory on effective schoolingFostering systematic discussion regarding current research and theory on effective schoolingIntellectual stimulation refers to the extent to which the principal ensures that faculty and staff are aware of the most current theories and practices regarding effective schooling and makes discussions of them a regular aspect of the school’s culture. This provides teachers with the intellectual capital (Marx,2006) that keeps them competitive. Providing faculty with ‘Intellectual Stimulation’ is vital for increasing achievement but it can be very costly in terms of time and money; quality conferences, workshops, and comprehensive professional development programs can cost hundreds and thousands of dollars.How do we demonstrate our commitment to intellectual stimulation and continuous improvement?What have I done?Professional development focus on The Art and Science of Teaching - Classroom Instruction that Works, Classroom Assessment and Grading that Work, Classroom Management that WorksCurriculum and Instruction Page and Principal’s page emphasizing continuous individual and school improvement
1512. Involvement in Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment Being directly involved in helping teachers design curricular activitiesBeing directly involved in helping teachers address assessment issuesBeing directly involved in helping teachers instructional issuesThis responsibility refers to the extent to which the principal is an instructional/learning leader. The challenge here is time and teachers may resist active principal participation in these activities.How do we demonstrate our commitment to involvement in curriculum, instruction, and assessment?What have I done?Chair the CIAT and Tech CommitteesConduct walk-thrusAttend PLC Team meetingsLeads the process and discussion on the development of a model of instruction using “The Art and Science of Teaching”
1613. Knowledge of Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment Possessing extensive knowledge about effective instructional practicesPossessing extensive knowledge about effective curricular practicesPossessing extensive knowledge about effective assessment practicesProviding conceptual guidance regarding effective classroom practicesThe principal ought to know what he is talking about. The “I know good teaching when I see it” explanation doesn’t cut it. This provides principals with the intellectual capital (Marx,2006) that keeps us competitive.In the introduction I mentioned how different responsibilities need to be emphasized for different types of change. Knowledge of curriculum, instruction, and assessment is most important for successful, dramatic, major, second-order change - innovation. It is vital that the principal understand how any changes will impact teaching in his school.How do we demonstrate a commitment to a knowledge of curriculum, instruction, and assessment?What have I done/will do?Read and create powerpoints for Marzano’s books on Instruction, Classroom Management, Assessment, School Improvement, School Leadership, and the Art and Science of Teaching.
1714. Monitoring/Evaluating Continually monitoring the effectiveness of he school’s curricular, instructional, and assessment practicesBeing continually aware of the impact of the school’s practices on student achievementFor teachers, the single most effective way to increase the achievement of their students is to use formative assessments (diagnostic, on-going, evaluative assessments) and reteach material students struggle with. Principals must do the same. This is a vital first step in continuous improvement.Evaluation is the starting point for continuous improvement.For the simple, incremental (first order) changes in a school, this responsibility was found to be most important.How do we demonstrate a commitment to monitoring/evaluating?What have I done?Review PLC feedback sheets and report on themReview common assessments resultsReview and report on state test results
1815. OptimizerInspiring teachers to accomplish things that might be beyond their graspBeing the driving force behind major initiativesPortraying a positive attitude about the ability of staff to accomplish substantial thingsOptimizer refers to the extent to which the principal inspires others and is the driving force when implementing a challenging innovation. Lead from the front.How do we demonstrate a commitment to being optimizers?What have I done?1. I will “Lead from the Front”. I will visibly push myself and be optimistic about what I can achieve.
1916. OrderEstablishing routines for the smooth running of the school that staff understand and followProviding and reinforcing clear structures, rules, and procedures for staffProviding and reinforcing clear structures, rules, and procedures for studentsOrder refers to the extent to which the principal establishes a set of standard operating principles and routines that are equitable and productive. Understand that order and smooth are not the same – smooth just means people know the routines and are comfortable with them – order means efficient, fair, and productive.How do we demonstrate a commitment to order?What will I do?1. Be open to review and reflection – use committees for continuous improvement
2017. OutreachEnsuring that the school complies with all district and state mandatesBeing an advocate of the school with parentsBeing an advocate of the school with the central office and school boardBeing an advocate of the school with the community at largeLeadership of a school is not confined to a building. Outreach is complex and vital.How do we demonstrate a commitment to outreach?What have I done?Newsletters and brochures for committeesDevelop the website as the school portfolioPresentations to the School Board that highlight school successes4. Join the PTO and attend its activities5. Attend, as much as is possible, extracurricular and athletic activities6. Make one positive phone call per week to a parent regarding their child (09-10)
2118. RelationshipsBeing informed about significant personal issues within the lives of staff membersBeing aware of personal needs of teachersAcknowledging significant events in the lives of staff membersMaintaining personal relationships with teachersThis can be very challenging for principals who can’t see the forest from the trees, or lack the ability to empathize, or lack people skills (emotional intelligence).How do we demonstrate a commitment to relationships?
2219. ResourcesEnsuring that teachers have the necessary materials and equipmentEnsuring that teachers have the necessary staff development opportunities to directly enhance their teachingThis requires asking staff what they need to be effective and working hard to get it. Be prepared with a working knowledge of the budget to advocate on behalf of your school and your teachers.How do we demonstrate a commitment to ensuring resources?
2320. Situational Awareness Accurately predicting what could go wrong from day to dayBeing aware of informal groups and relationships among the staffBeing aware of issues in the school that have not surfaced but could create discordPrincipals must have their finger on the pulse of the school. Listen, listen, listen… See the forest from the trees – symphonic thinking (Pink,2006)How do we demonstrate a commitment to situational awareness?
2421. Visibility Making systematic and frequent visits to classrooms Having frequent contact with studentsBeing highly visible to students, teachers, and parentsThis responsibility is commonly associated with instructional leadership.How do we demonstrate a commitment to visibility?What have I done?Walk-thrusGreet students every morning
25Two Types of Change First Order Changes Day to day changes, incremental, the next obvious step, solutions come from our experiencesAll 21 principal responsibilities are important but to varying degrees – the top third are:Monitoring/Evaluating, Culture, Ideals/Beliefs, Knowledge of and Involvement in Curriculum, Assessment, and Instruction, Focus, and OrderManaging the daily life of a school - handoutTwo Types of Change: Marzano’s factor analysis shows how the 21 responsibilities interact and are applied for change. When involved in day-to-day (first order) changes in a school, all 21 principal responsibilities are important but to varying degrees. When involved in dramatic (second order) changes in a school, the principal must emphasize certain responsibilities and minimize others. Show video on first and second-order change.Managing the Daily Life of a School Handout The 21 Responsibilities and Day-to-Day Management of a SchoolFirst Order change is a by-product of the day-today operations of the school. The routine business of schooling demands corrections and alterations that, by definition are first order in nature. The responsibilities, then, can be considered the management tools of effective school leaders.
26Two Types of Change Second Order Change - Innovation Dramatic departure from what is expected, both in defining the problem and in finding a solutionUnlike first order change, second order change is linked to 7 of the 21 principal responsibilitiesKnowledge of Curriculum, Instruction, and AssessmentOptimizerIntellectual StimulationChange AgentMonitoring/EvaluatingFlexibilityIdeals/BeliefsKnowledge of Curriculum, Instruction, and AssessmentBeing knowledgeable about how the innovation will affect curricular, instructional, and assessment practices and providing conceptual guidance in these areas.OptimizerBeing the driving force behind the new innovation and fostering the belief that it can produce exceptional results if members of the staff are willing to apply themselves.Intellectual StimulationBeing knowledgeable about the research and theory regarding the innovation and fostering such knowledge among staff through reading and discussion.Change AgentChallenging the status quo and being willing to move forward on the innovation without a guarantee of success.Monitoring/EvaluatingContinually monitoring the impact of the innovation.FlexibilityBeing both directive and nondirective relative to the innovation as the situation warrants.Ideals/BeliefsOperating in a manner consistent with his or her beliefs relative to the innovation.An Interesting NoteSome of the 21 Responsibilities are actually negatively affected by second-order change. A principal might have to endure the perception that culture (team spirit, cooperation, and common language) communication, order and routine, and the level of input have all deteriorated as a result of the innovation.
27Doing the Right WorkSchool effectiveness is directly linked to the principal’s ability select the right workWorking hard but not smartThe Right Work – factors that research and experience tells us can be altered to improve student achievement and learning and that we can pay forDoing the Right Work: (Effective School Reform) The principal’s ability to select right work is crucial for effective leadership and improving student achievement. Many schools work “hard” but not “smart” in that they select interventions that have little chance of improving student achievement. I think it goes without saying that those factors that can impact student achievement and learning ought to be the focus of our improvement efforts. The key is to select factors that research and experience tells us can be altered to improve student achievement and learning and that we can afford. What are those factors?See Marzano, R.J. (2003). What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action. Alexandria, Va. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
28Factors that Impact Student Achievement and Learning School-Level FactorsTeacher-Level FactorsStudent-Level FactorsSchool-Level Factors are those that are typically a function of school policy. They represent issues that individual teachers cannot address comprehensively. Rather these issues involve school-wide initiatives or operating procedures. I view these issues as the work of administration and committees.Teacher-Level Factors involve issues that individual teachers can address effectively – their work in their classroom.Student-Level Factors involve issues that are not typically addressed by schools but can be if a school is willing to implement specific types of school-wide programs.Marzano, R.J. (2003). What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action. Alexandria, Va. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
29School-Level Factors Guaranteed and viable curriculum Challenging goals and effective feedbackParent and community involvementSafe and orderly environmentCollegiality and professionalismGuaranteed and viable curriculumViability – trimmed down curriculum that can actually be taught in the instructional time we have – identify the content that is essential.Guaranteed – the school imposes the constraint that classroom teachers must address specific content in specific courses at specific grade levels.Challenging goals and effective feedback Both school-wide and for individual studentsEstablish and monitor achievement goals. Standards-based report cards – feedback that keeps track of specific topics within a subject.Parent and community involvementCommunication – to and from parentsParticipation – refers to the extent to which parents are involved in the day-to-day running of the school – volunteers, monitors, presenters.Governance – refers to the extent to which the school has established structures that allow for parents and community to be involved in decision-making relative to school policy.Safe and orderly environmentStudents and teachers are safe and perceive that they are safe from physical and psychological harm.Collegiality and professionalism Also referred to as organizational climate.Norms of conduct and behavior serve to create relationships that are professional as well as cordial and friendly.Structures that allow teachers to be an integral aspect of the important decisions in a school.Professional development that is focused, skill oriented, and cohesive from session to session and year to year.
30Teacher-Level Factors Instructional strategiesClassroom managementClassroom curriculum designInstructional strategiesAre teachers using effective instructional strategies?Develop an instructional framework or common language of teaching for planning units and lessons – The Art and Science of TeachingHandout 6.4 Categories of Instructional StrategiesClassroom managementClassroom rules and procedures, consequences, and student-teacher relationships.Classroom curriculum design How do teachers use the district curriculum?Identify the important information and skills.Present new content multiple time using a variety of activities.Distinguish which knowledge and skills they will teach to mastery and those they will only introduce.Present content in groups or categories that demonstrate the critical features of the content.Engage students in complex tasks that require addressing content in multiple ways.
31Student-Level Factors Home environmentLearned intelligence and background knowledgeMotivationHome environment At least three aspects of home environment determine whether it supports academic achievement.1. The extent to which parents communicate to their children about school and how they do so. 2. Supervision. 3. Parenting style - authoritative versus permissive.Learned intelligence and background knowledge This is the type of intelligence that is learned as opposed to innate and it is one of the strongest, if not the strongest, predictor of academic achievement. This factor is developed through mentoring – life experience, wide reading that emphasizes vocabulary development, direct content-specific vocabulary instruction.MotivationAction steps:Provide students with feedback on their knowledge gain – growth charts.Use tasks and activities that are inherently engaging – students can be engaged in a game and learn the embedded content even if they are not interested in the content per se.Students select their own topic, goals, and long term projects – creates a halo effect where student excitement carries over into other areas.Teach students about motivation and learning – metacognition.
32A Plan for Effective Leadership Develop a strong school leadership teamDistribute some responsibilities throughout the team (handout 7.1)Select the right work (handout 7.2)Identify the order of magnitude implied by the selected work (handout 7.3)Match the management style to the order of magnitude of the change (handouts 7.4 and 7.5)Develop a strong school leadership teamWe clearly cannot do it alone and even if we do, it is not sustainable. So according to Marzano the first thing we ought to do is develop a strong school leadership team.I am using our Curriculum and Instruction Advisory Team as a leadership team.Distribute some responsibilities throughout the teamDistribute 12 of the 21 responsibilities throughout the team (leaving 9 responsibilities with the principal). Handout 7.1Select the right workHandout 7.2Identify the order of magnitude implied by the selected workHandout 7.3Match the management style to the order of magnitude of the changeHandouts 7.4 and 7.5
33ReferenceMarzano, R.J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B.A. (2005). School Leadership that Works: From Research to Results. Alexandria, Va. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.