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10-1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
C HAPTER T EN Groups,Teams, and Their Leadership
10-3 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Differences Between Organizations and Groups An organization can be so large that most members do not know most of the other people within it. Groups are small and immediate enough to impact both feelings and self image. People tend to be more psychologically invested with groups to which they belong. Certain psychological needs are better satisfied by groups.
10-4 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Six Basic Concepts For Understanding Group Perspective Group size Stages of group development Roles Norms Communication Cohesion
10-5 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Implications Of Group Size Leader emergence is partially a function of group size. As groups become larger, cliques are more likely to form, and many intergroup conflicts are the result of cliques. Group size can affect a leaders behavioral style. Group size affects group effectiveness.
10-6 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Developmental Stages Of Groups FormingStormingNormingPerforming
10-7 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Task Roles In Groups Initiating: defining the problem, suggesting activities, assigning tasks. Information seeking: asking questions, seeking relevant data or views. Information sharing: providing data, offering opinions.
10-8 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Task Roles In Groups, continued Summarizing: reviewing and integrating others points, checking for common understanding and readiness for action. Evaluating: assessing validity of assumptions, quality of information, reasonableness of recommendations. Guiding: keeping group on track.
10-9 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Relationship Roles In Groups Harmonizing: resolving interpersonal conflicts, reducing tension. Encouraging: supporting and praising others, showing appreciation for other's contributions, being warm and friendly. Gatekeeping: assuring even participation by all group members, making sure that everyone has a chance to be heard and that no individual dominates.
10-10 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Why Group Cohesion Does Not Always Lead To Higher Performance A highly cohesive but unskilled team is still an unskilled team. A cohesive group may develop goals that are contrary to the larger organizations goals. Overbounding: groups can become so cohesive that they erect fences and boundaries between themselves and others.
10-11 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Why Group Cohesion Does Not Always Lead To Higher Performance, continued Group think: highly cohesive groups often become more concerned with unanimity than in objective appraisals. Ollieism: overzealous group members may perform illegal actions because they believe it will please their leaders.
10-12 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Differences Between Groups and Teams Team members usually have a stronger sense of identification among themselves than group members do. Teams have common goals or tasks. Task interdependence typically is greater with teams than with groups.
10-13 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Organizational Shells Organization TASK at work Team Group formation Industry BOUNDARY NORMS AUTHORITY Environment
10-14 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Feedback Feedback on team effectiveness Ginnetts Team Effectiveness Leadership Model Dream T-1 Task T-2 Composition T-3 Norms Team Design T-4 Authority 0-1 Reward Systems 0-2 Education Systems 0-3 Information Systems Organizational Inputs 0-4 Control System I-1 Interests/Motivation I-2 Skills/Abilities I-3 Values/Attitudes Individual Inputs I-4 Interpersonal Behavior Team Leadership Industry P-1 Effort P-2 Knowledge & Skills P-3 Strategy Process Criteria P-4 Group Dynamics Team Effectiveness Outcome acceptable to stakeholders Future capability of team Individual satisfaction Design Environment Development Self-efficacy Feedback Material Resources Feedback
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