2 Essential Questions Ch1 S2 What are the big ideas of Earth science?What are the branches of Earth science?How do Earth scientists use models?
3 Big Ideas of Earth Science Earth Science is the term for the knowledge about Earth and its place in the universe.Earth scientists use several big ideas to guide their work:the structure of the Earth system, Earth’s history, and Earth in the solar system.
4 The Structure of the Earth System The atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, andlithosphere work together to form one large systemcalled Earth.biospherelithospherehydrosphereatmosphere
5 Structure of the Earth Earth's Major Spheres 1. Hydrosphere • Ocean is the most prominent feature of the hydrosphere.- Is nearly 71% of Earth's surface- Holds about 97% of Earth's water• Also includes fresh water found in streams, lakes, and glaciers, as well as that found underground
6 Structure of the Earth Earth's Major Spheres 2. Atmosphere • Thin blanket of air surrounding Earth• One half lies below 5.6 kilometers (3.5 miles)3. Biosphere• Includes all life• Concentrated near the surface in a zone that extends from the ocean floor upward for several kilometers into the atmosphere
7 Structure of the Earth Earth's Major Spheres 4. Lithosphere Picture: Model of the Earth• earth’s solid rocky outer layer- Crust—the thin, rocky outer layer of Earth.
8 Structure of the Earth System What Is a System?Structure of the Earth SystemA system is any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole. (parts work together)Change in one part effects the other parts (a change in one of the spheresaffects the other 3)Matter and energy move from one part to the other
9 Structure of the Earth System Energy is the ability to do work or cause changeThe sun provides energy for the water cycleand many other processes. The sun’s energyis transferred to Earth as radiation (a form ofEnergy that can move through space).The earth’s interior also produces heat thatsupplies energy for other processes. (likevolcanoes)Structure of the Earth System
10 Branches of Earth Science Overview of Earth ScienceBranches of Earth Science Earth science includes1. Geology -- the study of the solid Earth (geologists) more2. Oceanography - the study of the ocean and all related to it (oceanographer) more
11 Branches of Earth Science 3. Meteorology - the study of the atmosphere and the processes that produce weather (meteorologist) more4. Astronomy - the study of the universe (astronomers) picture more5. Environmental science – the study of the Earth’s environments and resources (environmental scientist)
12 Models of the EarthModels help people study and understand things that can’t be observed directly. There are different kinds of models that represent an object.
13 Terms related to a model of the Earth Equator - An imaginary east-west line aroundthe center of Earth that divides the planet intothe Northern Hemisphere and the SouthernHemisphere; a line set at 0° latitude.Prime Meridian -An imaginary north-south line that divides the planet into the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere. The prime meridian passes through Greenwich, England.
14 Terms related to Models of the Earth Determining LocationTerms related to Models of the EarthLatitude and longitude are lines on the globe that are used to determine location.equatorprimemeridianLatitude is distance north or south of the equator, measured in degrees.Longitude is distance east or west of the prime meridian, measured in degrees.
15 QuizLatitude is a measurement of distance north or south of the _____________.Hemisphere b. EquatorIndex contour d. Prime meridianThe Earth is divided into four parts that work together as a_______________.Sphere b. Energyc. System d. hydrosphere
16 3. True/FalseA geologist is a scientist that studies the solid Earth.Draw a circle like this one with the lines.Label theprime meridianand equator. LabelThe line of longitudeAnd latitude.
18 OceanographyWe will explore our four major oceans, the properties of seawater, ocean floor and coastline features, ocean sediments, and major ocean currents.Back Branches of Earth Science
19 AstronomyIn astronomy we will study such topics as the sun and other stars, planets and other objects in our solar system, lunar phases, tides, and eclipses.Back Branches of Earth Science
20 GeologyHere we tackle a variety of topics including minerals and rocks, volcanoes, earthquakes, faults and folds, soils, erosion, mountains, plate tectonics, and geologic history.Back: Branches of Earth Science
21 MeteorologyHere we will take a look at cloud and precipitation types, storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes, and fronts, pressure systems, and weather maps.Back Branches of Earth Science
22 Model of the EarthLithosphereReturn: Structure of the Earth