2 System An organized group of parts that work together as a whole Closed system: matter cannot leaveExample- Earth or a terrarium (soil and water cannot enter or leave)Open system: matter and energy move into and out of it.Example- the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the biosphere and the lithosphere (matter and energy move into and out of it)
3 The systems- Atmosphere A mixture of gases and particles that surrounds and protects the surface of EarthMost abundant gases are nitrogen (about 78%) and oxygen (about 21%). It also contains carbon dioxide, water vapor, and a few other gases.Technology UsedWeather balloons, fly specially equipped planes, satellite imagesIt shows how atmosphere interacts with other parts of Earth’s system to form complex weather patterns that circulate the Earth.
4 The systems- Hydrosphere Made up of all the water on Earth in oceans, lakes, glaciers, rivers, streams and underground.Water covers nearly ¾ of Earth’s surface but only about 3% is freshwater. And nearly 70% of that freshwater is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps.TechnologyDeep sea vehicles, special buoys, satellite images and diving suits.They have discovered ocean has several layers of cold and warm water which circulate and form warm and cold ocean currents, which in turn interact with wind patterns and affect Earth’s weather.
5 The systems- Biosphere Includes all life on Earth, in the air, on the land and in the waters.TechnologyVariety of technologies! Satellite photos, platforms in treetops to observe forest animals.Biosphere interacts with other systems. One example, large forests absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen into the atmosphere. When dead trees decay, they return nutrients to the soil.
6 The systems- Lithosphere Lithosphere sphereIncludes all the features on Earth’s surface-the continents, islands, and sea floor and everything below the surface. Geosphere is made up of several layers (next slide).TechnologyNot until 1900’s were people able to study Earth from space or to explore deep within the planet. Use satellite images, sound waves, and computer modeling to develop accurate pictures.Images show that Earth is constantly changing. Some are sudden such as a volcano, others happen over millions of years such as the birth of a new island.
8 All four parts of Earth’s system shape the planet’s surface Atmosphere and Hydrosphere- Not even the hardest stone can withstand wind and water!Geosphere- Landmasses pushing together have set off earthquakes and formed volcanoes and mountain ranges.Biosphere- Plants, animals, and human beings have changed the Earth’s surface.You are part of this process too! Everytime you walk or ride a bike across open land, you are changing Earth’s surface.
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