2Our founding fathers profoundly believed that their new democracy’s health depended on its people’s virtues as right, honorable, ethical individuals as well as knowledgeable citizens.
3Founding Fathers Believed Public Education Essential Rousseau noted in 1758 that “public education…is one of the fundamental rules of popular or legitimate government”.Jean Jacques Rousseau, A Discourse of Political Economy, 1758, translation and introduction by G.D.H. Cole in The Social Contract and Discourses, London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1973), p. 149.An educated general populace required for its democratic republic’s survival
4The first American school finance laws date back to the Massachusetts Act of 1642, which required parents and masters to attend to the educational duties of the colony’s sons and servants.
5“The General Court (the colonial legislature) empowered ‘certain chosen men’ of each town to ascertain, from time to time, if the parents and masters were attending to their educational duties; if the children were being trained in learning and labor and other employments…profitable to the Commonwealth .”The law also authorized the Selectmen to impose fines on those who were not making such educational provisions.
6Early U.S. Value in Education “The child is to be educated, not to advance his personal interest, but because the state will suffer if he is not educated.”
7“Profitable to the state” “Profitable” meant that sons and male servants learned to read and understand religious principles while they received training in “learning and labor”. Women stayed home and learned household tasks and embroidery– an obvious Title IX violationtoday.Ellwood Cubberley, The History of Education (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1920), p. 34
8“Ye Olde Deluder Satan” Laws Within five years of the first school finance law, however, it failed;The law presumed that those who could read & understand the Bible couldn’t be tempted to follow Satan’s wiles.
9Different Sized Settlements Had Varying Requirements for Providing Public Schooling For 50 or more households -Appoint a reading and writing teacherPay what deemed appropriateFor settlements of 100 or more households –Community taxed property owners to provide a grammar school
10Towns not meeting this educational requirement faced a financial penalty.
11Who Paid for Schools?Founding fathers believed that the wealthy should pay for education’s public and religious functions.Local government taxed property because people in those days considered land to be a valid measure of wealth.
12The Law of 1647 Represented a Distinct Step Forward Not only did the law order towns to establish a school system – elementary for all towns & children, and secondary for youths in the larger towns – butFor the first time among English-speaking people, there was an assertion of the right of the State to require communities to establish and maintain schools. Failure to do so resulted in penalty.
13The Laws of 1642 & 1647Represent the foundations upon which our American state public-school systems have been built.They also established the State’s right to tax for the provision of education.
14Massachusetts’ Precedent Establishing property taxes as the basis for funding public schools quickly caught on in other New England colonies. It remains a tradition to this day.
15Compromise to Appease State’s Rights Advocates & Federalists Since the first 10 Amendments do not mention “education”, it became a state function.
16Who is Responsible for Public Schools? This compromise, however, has far-reaching legal and financial effects today.State’s rights continues to be a discomforting national issue with keen influence on educational policy and practices.
17Taxing Property Evolved Somewhat Differently in Various Regions The middle and southern colonies, for example, subsidized very basic public schools (small facilities, limited curriculum, few students attending)Mostly churches & parents financed further education.
18Education = Prosperity States must invest as heavily in education as their capacity allows if they want future economic prosperity for all its citizens.
19Regional Evolution of Schools & School Financing 1. Good schoolconditions2. Mixed conditions3. Pauper &parochial schools4. “No action” group
20Schools’ Evolution Differed in Various Geographic Regions New England became the first English-speaking area that required children learn how to readAlthough religious in inspiration and scope (students would be able to interpret the Bible for themselves and save their immortal souls), knowing how to read and comprehend also allowed individuals to think for themselves and act without offense or injury to others
21Good School Conditions Citizens generally valued education and saw its value for the “entire”* populaceProvided public financial support to educate large number of studentsMaineVermontNew HampshireMassachusettsConnecticutNew YorkOhio* White Male
22Mixed Conditions Schools People held conflicting ideas about what education should be and what it should provide for children.Showed wide variance in their willingness to fund local schools and in resulting education quality.IndianaIllinois
23Pauper & Parochial School Believed that high-quality schooling was for the elitePrivileged sent their children to church-sponsored (parochial) schoolsCommunity leaders believed that the poor (paupers) deserved a minimal level of educationPennsylvaniaNew JerseyDelawareMarylandVirginiaGeorgiaSouth CarolinaLouisiana
24“No Action” GroupPhilosophically, these colonists believed that “government” should play little role in citizens’ or community affairs. Individuals held responsibility for their own actions and well-being, including providing for their children’s education.These regions took little or no actions establishing public education in their early statehood.Rhode Island, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, Mississippi, and Alabama.Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs and established Rhode Island. Williams believed that the government should take no action regarding establishing schools.
25Not All States Fit These Categories A number of states reflect an amalgam of people and ideas, not fitting one distinct pattern.
26The BEST Schooling Model The Good School Conditionsmodel offered its eligible childrenthe best learningopportunities.States must invest as heavily in education as their capacity allows if they want future economic prosperity for all its citizens.
27Federal History of School Funding Even though the Constitution made education a state responsibility, the federal government did not abandon involvement with public schools or leave their financing solely to the statesOn the contrary, the federal government heavily promoted and financed education from before the Constitution was ratified
28Federal Financial Involvement in Education In 1778 Congress eagerly sought ways to generate revenue for the new country and to pay its war debts. One method involved selling claim to western territories.
29Ordinance of 1785New Congressional townships in the western territories should be six miles square (or thirty-six square miles)The six miles square would be surveyed and divided into thirty-six lots, each of one square mileTowns could set aside the proceeds from lot number 16 to finance their public schools
30Early School Financing Northwest Ordinance of 1787:Authorized land grants to establish educationMagnificent rhetoric but little guidance about how to carryit outOrdinance of 1787:Conveyed approximately five million acres to land speculators
31The Ordinance Included: “Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall be forever encouraged.”
32New States Required to Provide Education The Northwest Ordinance also established the requisite conditions for territories to become states and included a provision that each state have an education provision within its basic laws.
33Clarifying the “Sixteenth Section’s” Township Intent Required monies from this section’s sales be spent for public schoolsStarted with OhioFederal & state roles clarified
344th “Wave” of Federal Policy States would receive “a 5%” portion of the sale of public lands & states agreed that federal lands within states would be exempt from state taxesThese revenues added to monies available to establish public schools
35Andrew Jackson’s Presidency There was a move to decentralize the federal governmentIn 1836, the Surplus Revenue Deposit Act gave $28 million of federal funds to the statesMuch of this windfall was spent for public schools
36Another Major Federal Financing of U.S. Education In 1802, Congress enacted legislation establishing the U.S. Military AcademyIn 1845, established the Naval AcademyIn 1876, founded the Coast Guard AcademyIn 1936, founded The Merchant Marine AcademyIn 1954, started the U. S. Air Force AcademyThis direct investment in schooling illustrated the federal government’s commitment to assure its own security through education.
371862, Congress Established the Morrill Act Authorized the states to use public land grants to establish and maintain agricultural and mechanical collegesAssured the country’s economic security by producing knowledgeable managers and planners for the nation’s growthIn 1890, Congress passed the second Morrill Act providing funds to support instruction in the colleges that the first Morrill Act established
38U.S. Department of Education Established in 1867This brought the function of education to a leadership position in the federal governmentLater, the Department was “downgraded” to the Office of Education. It continued as part of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare until reestablished as a Department in 1980
39The 1917 Smith-Hughes ActDuring World War I, the government faced large numbers of returning soldiers who needed specific workplace skillsThis Act gave states grants to support vocational educationThe national government also directed the state’s role in administering this program according to federal standards and funds – a model followed in future federal education grants.
40States Administer Federal Monies The national government directed the state’s role in administering this program according to federal standards and funds – a model followed in future federal education grants.
411918, Congress Passed the Vocational Rehabilitation Act Providing funds to rehabilitate World War I veterans.
421919, Congressional Act to Provide for Further Educational Facilities Authorized the federal government to sell surplus machine tools to schools for 15 percent of their original purchase price – enabling schoolsto have the equipmentneeded to give students“real world” training.
431920, Smith-Bankhead ActAuthorized grants for the states to provide vocational rehabilitation programs.
441935, Agricultural Adjustment Act Congress and the Executive Branch desperately sought the quick-fix to save the crashing economy and relieve citizens’ economic despair.Set up the School Lunch Act – providing food to schools so it could feed its students (because their families might not).Response to Great Depression.In 1946, the National School Lunch Act enhanced this assistance to schools.
451941, Amendment to the Lanham Act of 1940 Providing federal aid for the construction, maintenance, and operation of schools located in federally impacted areas…(where U.S. military families lived and worked on government-owned land and facilities and paid no state or local property taxes).
461943, Vocational Rehabilitation Act Public Law 78-16Provided assistance to disabled veterans returning home from WW II
471944, The G.I. Bill Servicemen’s Readjustment Act Provided education benefits to military returnees as they reentered civilian lifeBy providingan attractive education alternative to employment, the GI Bill delayed many of the returning veterans from flooding the labor market and stalling economic recovery.This remarkable legislation had far-reaching consequences for American democracy, education, and the scope and quality of middle class life at mid-century and beyond. First, World War II brought the United States out of the Great Depression. Our country admirably geared up for the war machine. With thousands of servicemen returning to the civilian workforce, the economy, in all probability, could not have supported the worker surplus.
48G.I. BillOffered a living stipend while veterans attended school, effectively transitioning the potential labor glut into a student cohort earning their living while learning new work knowledge and skillsEnabled an educational investment in our country’s infrastructure by enhancing the workforce’s job skillsThe world had changed during the war. Our country had moved into the Nuclear Age and many recognized the need for enhanced workforce knowledge and skills. The GI Bill provided just such an incentive.
49G.I. Bill, cont.Effectively supplied a massive education infusion to citizens, raising the education bar, and expanding learning horizons, career, and lifestyle opportunities for these returnees and for future generations.Last, less than half the United States population graduated from high school prior to World War II.
50Federal Property and Administrative Services Act Initially, schools and colleges felt a bit overwhelmed with the newfound demand for their services, placing a drain on resources.The Act allowed the national government to donate surplus federal property to educational institutions.Congress effectively recognized the financial burden that localities and states faced and spread that financial burden over the entire country by taking equipment bought with federal (yours and my tax) dollars and donating them to schools.
51After WWIIAmerica believed herself to be the most powerful nation in military and economic strength.After World War II, the national economy moved forward well. Colleges and universities bristled with activity. Levittowns and other planned suburban communities sprang up, offering home ownership to thousands of families.
52Following Sputnik in 1957, however, the nation faced a wrenching reality check. The Russians became the first country to orbit outer space. Serious national questions arose whether public schools had enough direction and resources to keep our global superiority. One wonders whether if these events had occurred in the last fifteen years, politicians may have wanted to scrap the public schools instead of providing a massive capital infusion as they did with the NDEA.
53National Defense Education Act The NDEA provided economic assistance to states and individual school systems to “beef up” science and math instruction, foreign languages, and other crucial subjects.
54NDEA Also Supplied States with Resources Including Statistical reportingGuidance & counselingTestingVocational & technical programsHigher education student loans & fellowshipsForeign language study & trainingNew teaching media
55Education of Mentally Retarded Children Act Train teachers to work successfully with disabled students.Prior to this time, only a few states distributed funds to localities to supplement educational programs for handicapped students. Most families with disabled children had to find their own help.
561975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act Public LawIntended the federal government to pay 40% of the funding necessary for special education servicesStates & localities to pay the restToday, the federal government pays 17% of special education costs instead of the 40% promised in national legislation
571965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act Categorical Aid Programs: Title IProvided supplemental school program grants for children of low-income familiesIntended to help economically disadvantaged students succeed (catch up with middle class and affluent peers) in the regular school programProvided additional educations resources to improve their basic and advanced skills to achieve grade-level proficiencyIncluded extra or school-wide activities encouraging heavy parent involvementThis Great Society legislation is arguably the most important Congressional action to fund education programs up to that time. An offshoot of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Act contained five title categorical aid programs specifically designed to finance education for certain student populations.
58Government Distributes These Funds in 2 Ways Basic GrantsFlow through the State Education Agency (SEA) to localities based on a formula involving the school district’s number of eligible students and the average state per-pupil expenditure.Concentration GrantsAvailable only to restricted populations and represent a smaller percentage of the overall funding.Particularly useful to school systems with high percentages of disadvantaged students.
59Title ITitle I provided supplemental school program grants for children of low-income familiesThis program intended to help economically disadvantaged students succeed in the regular school program by improving basic and advanced skills and achieving grade-level proficiencyThe program could include supplemental or school-wide activities encouraging heavy parent involvement
60Title I, cont.Most Title I funds are basic grants which flow through the State Education Agency (SEA) to localities based on a formula involving the school district’s number of eligible students and the average state per-pupil expenditureConcentration grants represent a smaller percentage of the overall funding within this Title
61Title I, cont.Concentration grants are designed for localities with a high number of eligible students – more than 6,500 students or more than 15% of all students eligible for Title I fundingThis is particularly useful to school systems with high percentages of disadvantaged students
62Title I, cont.Annual amount of Congressional funds allocated for Title I varies from year to year, depending on political allocation decisionsRequires that school divisions will not receive less than 85% of its previous year’s funding shareTitle I money had less buying power in the 1990’s although expected to support learning interventions for more children
63Title II Grant monies for school library resources, textbooks & other instructional materials,including audio-visual equipmentCalled the Dwight D.Eisenhower Mathematics& Science Education Act
64Title II Provides presidential awards for outstanding teaching Funds for magnet schoolsMonies for talented and gifted programsFunds for women’s educational equityGrants for drug abuse prevention,dropout prevention,bilingual education, &other programs.
65Other Categorical Grants Title IIIProvided funds for supplementary education centers and services to public and private schools
66Other Categorical Grants, cont. Title IVAllocated funds for regional educational research and training laboratories
67Other Categorical Grants, cont. Title VProvided funds for strengthening state departments of education (otherwise known as State Education Agencies – SEAs)
68Funding Public Broadcasting In 1967, Congress passed the Public Broadcasting ActThe Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) was created and assumed a major role in routing federal monies to noncommercial radio and television stations
69Funding Public Broadcasting The CPB began program production groups and started Educational Television (ETV) networksThe CPB was responsible for awarding construction grants for educational radio and television facilitiesMany of today’s new teachers were raised on programming given its start by the CPB. Those programs include Sesame Street, The Electric Company, and others.
70Educating Disabled Students In 1968, the Handicapped Children’s Early Education Assistance Act, Public Law , was passed. This act provided for the authorization of preschool and early education programs for handicapped children
71Educating Disabled Students, cont. Seven years later, in 1975, Public Law , the Education for All Handicapped Children Act provided that all handicapped children have a free, appropriate public education
72Social Changes & School Funding In 1970, many federal legislative changes came into being that had their beginning in social changes of the timesThe National Commission on School Finance was established under the Elementary and Secondary Education Assistance Programs, Extension, Public Law
73Social Changes & School Funding, cont. Office of Education Appropriation Act, Public Law , provided emergency school assistance to desegregating local school districts and schoolsThe Drug Abuse Education Act of 1970, Public Law , provided funding for the development, demonstration, and evaluation of materials dealing with the many problems of drug abuse
74Selected Other Federal Funding In 1986, the Handicapped Children’s Protection Act, Public Law , was passedThis allowed parents of handicapped students to collect the attorney fees in cases brought under the Education of the Handicapped Act
75Selected Other Federal Funding, cont. In 1993 the NAEP Assessment Authorization, Public Law , authorized the use of the National Assessment of Educational Progress, the Nation’s Report CardTo be used for the purpose of making state-by-state comparisons of student performance. Country-by-country comparisons had already been made public
76Selected Other Federal Funding, cont. In 1996, Congress felt pressure from states and localities regarding legislation that required states and localities to take certain actions that required money without the financial provisions in the acts to cover costsTo that end, the Contract With America: Unfunded Mandates, Public Law 104-4, was passed in an attempt to curb the practice of imposing unfounded federal mandates on states and localities
77Federal Funding TodayToday, the federal government funds approximately $50 billion dollars for education purposes at the elementary and secondary levels
78Federal Funding Today, cont. The federal government has invested more than$1 trillion in elementary & secondary education from 1969 to 2001 – an average of more than $27.7 billion per year.