Presentation on theme: "Overview of Secondary Special Education"— Presentation transcript:
1Overview of Secondary Special Education EDUC 4580/MEDUC 6580
2Six Values to Guide Teaching Envisioning Great ExpectationsEnhancing Positive ContributionsBuilding on StrengthsActing on ChoicesExpanding RelationshipsEnsuring Full Citizenship
3History of Discrimination Cases Prior to IDEA that Prohibited DiscriminationSeparate Is Not Equal Brown v. Board of Education (1954)Free Appropriate Public Education Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens (PARC) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1972) Applied to students with mental retardation; FAPE, LRE, periodic review, procedural due process Mills v. Washington, DC, Board of Education (1972) Extended PARC to all students with disabilities. Honig v. Doe (1988) Students with disabilities cannot be excluded for disability-related behaviors from school. Timothy W. v. Rochester School District (1989) FAPE must be provided to all children with disabilities.Nondiscriminatory Assessment Diana v. State Board of Education(1970) Assessment must be in the student’s native language. Larry P. v. Riles (1981) IQ tests cannot be used as sole basis for placement into special education.
4IDEA Categories Specific learning disabilities Emotional disturbance Mental retardationAutismOther health impairmentsOrthopedic impairmentsTraumatic brain injurySpeech or language impairmentsHearing impairments, including deafnessVisual impairments, including blindnessDeaf-blindnessMultiple disabilitiesDevelopmental delays (for children aged 3-9)
5Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Originally Called - Education of All Handicapped Students Act of 1975 (PL )Six Principles of IDEA (PL )Least restrictive environmentAppropriate educationProcedural due processParent and student participationNondiscriminatory evaluationZero rejectFive Provisions of IDEAIEPLRENondiscriminatory testingConfidentiality
6Components of an IEPA statement of the child’s present levels of performance.A statement of measurable annual goals, including benchmarks or short-term objectives.A statement of the special education and related services and supplementary aids and services to be provided to the child.An explanation of the extent, if any, to which the child will not participate with nondisabled children in the regular class or other school-related settings.A statement of any individual modifications in the administration of State or district-wide assessments of student achievement.A projected date for the beginning of the services and modifications.A statement of how the child’s progress will be measured and how the parents will be informed.Beginning at age 14 (or younger if appropriate) a statement of the transitions services needed.
7Cascade of Services Level I - general education classroom Level II - general education plus supplemental servicesLevel III - part-time special classLevel IV - full-time special classLevel V - special stationsLevel VI - homeboundLevel VII - hospital/in-patient programs
8Other Federal Laws Entitlements and Services Rehabilitation Act – 1973 Section 503 –affirmative action plans to recruit, train, and hire individuals with disabilities, and provide reasonable accommodations to individuals with disabilitiesSection 504 – equal access to programs, jobs, and housingTechnology-Related Assistance to Individuals with Disabilities Act (Tech Act) – 1988Prohibition of DiscriminationSection 504 of the Rehabilitation Act – 1975Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) – 1990 – expands Rehabilitation Act of 1973 to include all public and private employers, services, and facilities.
9Factors Undermining the Success of Secondary Special Education Limited recognition of the need for services at this level.The inflexible structure of regular secondary educationCurricular emphasis of regular secondary education.Inadequate teacher preparation.Lack of theoretical and empirical support Lack of appropriate materials
10Goals of Secondary Special Education (Deshler, Schumaker, & Lenz, 1984) To be placed in the least restrictive environment.To earn a high school diploma, for which they may have to pass minimum competency exams.To develop independent learning skills that will enable them to acquire information in new environmentsTo demonstrate social competence so that they will be able to function in employment and other community settingsTo prepare for a career.