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History of Education: After the Civil War Chapter 5C - Foundations.

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Presentation on theme: "History of Education: After the Civil War Chapter 5C - Foundations."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Education: After the Civil War Chapter 5C - Foundations

2 Hispanic American Education ~ Fastest growing ethnic group * From Puerto Rico, Cuba, Central America, South America, Mexico * Majority in California, Texas, and Florida ~ 1917: Puerto Rico became a commonwealth of the U.S. and the people became citizens of the US ~ Some believe bilingual education s necessary for more Hispanics to succeed in school

3 Asian American Education 1850s – found jobs in the gold mines and railroads 1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act 1924 – Oriental Exclusion Act During WWII – relocated to internment camps & their property was confiscated 1970s – Influx of Koreans, Vietnamese, Cambodians, Laotians, Thais

4 Exceptional Learners In early 20 th century, conditions were overcrowded, impersonal, sometimes inhumane Scientists began measuring & classifying disabilities in the mid-20 th century Public school began adding classes & programs for exceptional learners 1960s – Civil Rights movement brought changes: Such as early intervention and integration

5 American Women 1920 – Right to Vote Amendment 1964: Equal Employment Act no job discrimination, including by gender 1972: Title IX of the Education Amendments Act guaranteed no person could be excluded from an education program or activity based on gender greatest impact on public education: was in sports. * Girls must be given equal access to coaching and equipment 1974 Womens Educational Equity Act (WEEA) Attacked sex discrimination in education professions

6 Teaching After the Civil War 1920 – 86% of teachers were women, but most administrators were men marriage was seen as a liability (women lost their job once married) Progressive movement was encouraged: schools should focus on students needs and interests, rather than the teachers John Dewey advocated: child-centered education and suggested integrating subjects with social activities

7 Teaching After the Civil War (cont.) 1957 – Sputnik- Soviet Union put the first satellite into space greater emphasis on math, science and foreign language 1958 – National Defense Education Act (NDEA) provided money for upgrading math, science, foreign language, and guidance departments 2002 – No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA)

8 Schools After the Civil War Most schools were small & rural in late 1800s/early 1900s 1920s rural districts combined to increase resources and centralize administration sometimes required long bus routes city districts were patterned after the factory model: a superintendent, a few principals, and many teachers

9 Schools After the Civil War (cont.) 1940s – preschools were popular and funded until federal funds were withdrawn and preschools were closed 1960s – Head Start began to serve 4 & 5 year olds Most of these students were economically disadvantaged

10 Schools After the Civil War (cont.) School Organization: Late 19 th /early 20 th century: Elementary = K-8; High School = 9-12 saw an increase in public high schools and a decrease in private schools high schools offered many courses for students with diverse needs, interests and abilities

11 Schools After the Civil War (cont.) 1920s school organization (6-3-3) Elementary = 1-6; Junior High = 7-9; High School = 10-12 1950-60s school organization (6-2-4) Elementary = 1-6; Junior High = 7-8; High School = 9- 12 increase in higher education 21 st century (4-4-4) Elementary = K-4; Middle School = 5-8; High School = 9-12

12 Schools After the Civil War (cont.) School Curriculum 1893: Committee of Ten on Secondary School Studies - standardized high school curriculum across the US 1895: Committee of Fifteen - addressed standardized elementary curriculum 21 st century curriculum is assessed by the NAEP test: - National Assessment of Educational Progress

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