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Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.2 | 1 Chapter Two Section Two The Constitution.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.2 | 1 Chapter Two Section Two The Constitution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.2 | 1 Chapter Two Section Two The Constitution

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.2 | 2 CONSTITUTION The system of fundamental laws and principles that prescribes the nature, functions, and limits of a government or another institution

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.2 | 3 - statement of ideals -establishes basic structure of government -defines and limits governments powers and duties -supreme law of country CONSTITUTION

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.2 | 4 Not all systems with constitutions are democracies; not all democracies have constitutions CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.2 | 5 We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. STATEMENT OF IDEALS

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.2 | 6 PURPOSES OF GOVERNMENT Maintain order Provide public services Regulate the economy

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.2 | 7 We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. STATEMENT OF IDEALS

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.2 | 8 -unitary, federal, or confederal? -parliamentary or presidential? -unicameral or bicameral? -proportional or pluralist/majoritarian? STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.2 | 9 - defines and limits powers and duties of government - -defines and limits powers and duties of citizens SUPREME LAW

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.2 | 10 The Articles of Confederation 1781 To all to whom these Presents shall come, we the undersigned Delegates of the States affixed to our Names send greeting. Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. Article I. The Stile of this Confederacy shall be "The United States of America." Article II. Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled. Article III. The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense whatever.

11 Structure of the Articles of Confederation Established a “firm league of friendship” among the states. Each state kept “its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right…not…expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.”

12 Structure of the Articles of Confederation Congress was the sole body created and was unicameral. Delegates to the Congress were chosen annually by the States in whatever way their legislatures desired. Each state had one vote regardless of size or population.

13 Structure of the Articles of Confederation There was no executive or judicial branch. –These functions would be handled by committees of the Congress. –Each year the Congress would select one of it’s members to be the president. President would preside over the Congress, but would NOT be the president of the United States. –Civil officers (postmasters etc.) would also be selected by the Congress

14 Powers of Congress under the Articles of Confederation 1.Make war and peace. 2.Send and receive ambassadors. 3.Make treaties. 4.Borrow money. 5.Set up a monetary system. 6.Build a navy. 7.Raise an army by asking the States for troops. 8.Fix uniform standards of weights and measures. 9.Settle disputes among the states.

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.2 | 15 Strengths of the Articles of Confederation First written constitution First National Union Neutral negotiating forum for states Successes: –Land Ordinance 1785 standardized weights and measures –Northwest Ordinance 1787 to survey new territories, define admission of new states, and allow for state sovereignty on issue of slavery –Jay Treaty 1785 added Florida territory and opened up Mississippi to trade –Established a National Postal Service

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.2 | 16 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Confederal –Sovereignty, independence retained by states Parliamentary –No Executive or Judicial Unicameral –Delegates to Congress picked, paid for by state legislatures One vote in Congress for each state –Nine of thirteen votes in Congress required for any measure –All thirteen states’ consent necessary for any amendments Congress did not have power to tax, print money, or regulate commerce Army small and dependent on independent state militias Territorial disputes between states led to open hostilities

17 State Constitutions Pennsylvania Most democratic Universal Suffrage Popular election One Year Terms Unicameral Executive Council Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.2 | 17 Massachusetts Weak government Christian Property owners Separation of Powers Executive Veto Appointed Judges

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.2 | 18 Shay’s Rebellion Veterans’ Bonds and the Poll Tax

19 How did Shay’s Rebellion bring forth the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?


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