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The Role of Political Parties in the Constitutional System

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1 The Role of Political Parties in the Constitutional System
Unit Three Lesson 16

2 Judicial Review Practice
In 4 groups, you do the following Read the case study you were given Identify the CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUE Answer the questions at the end of your paper (work together but each turns in own copy) Explain the * MAJORITY OPINION * DISSENTING OPINION * YOUR OPINION

3 What the Framers thought about Political Parties
Some believed “factions” or political parties were evil and should be eradicated (A. Hamilton) Others believed that political parties were inevitable and were a result of diverse interests Madison and others believed open opposition express through political parties was a good thing as they fostered open debate Most colonists were used to political factions voicing their differing political views But a party system where two or more parties competed against each other for elected office was not even addressed

4 Ideas and Events that led to the Development of Political Parties in the 1790’s
The Power of the National Government Constitution created to take on national problems A. Hamilton believed the Constitution gave the government the power to deal with any national problem that came up T. Jefferson believed the government only had the powers laid out in the Constitution. Unlimited power was what Jefferson feared Economic Vision Hamilton, as Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating a National Bank under the “necessary and proper” clause Jefferson disagreed. Believed the “necessary and proper” clause should mean only if “absolutely and indispensably necessary.”

5 Ideas and Events that led to the Development of Political Parties in the 1780’s
Foreign Policy Jefferson believed the US should come to the aid of France in the war between France and England because they had supported us in the Revolutionary War Hamilton wanted the US to back England because we had more in common with them. We also had trade deals with them. Washington, trying to keep our government from dividing into two camps, declared the US neutral Those in favor of France created the “Democratic-Republican Clubs which met to plan on how to block the government’s neutrality. Madison, Jefferson and others subsidized newspapers who printed articles on their side. This became the first “political party” Hamilton then formed the Federalist party as a counter to the DR clubs Each saw the other as a threat to our national government, not as an opposition party

6 Ideas and Events that led to the Development of Political Parties in the 1780’s
The Alien and Sedition Act Many were concerned that aliens would incite SEDITION against the authority of the national government ALIEN ACT (1798) signed by President Adams, gave him the power to force aliens to leave of he considered them dangerous SEDITION ACT (1798) made it a crime for editors, writers, or speakers to attack the government These laws outraged the DR’s after Federalist judges fined and jailed several DR newspaper editors and a member of Congress was accused Madison and Jefferson wrote the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions, which claimed that the states had a right to decide if the national government had exceeded its powers, claiming state legislatures had the power to declare an act of Congress null and void. Other states did not agree The Alien and Sedition Acts helped mobilize support for the Federalists

7 The “Revolution of 1800” and its aftermath
1800 first election where political opponents who were from different political parties. Federalists supported John Adams and the DR’s supported Thomas Jefferson The candidates did not campaign themselves (considered undignified) but their parties battled and the election highlighted their political disagreements Both accused the other of trying to destroy the Constitution Jefferson won and power was handed over as a result of an “electoral” revolution rather than by heredity or violence Electors had voted for 2 DR’s so the vote ended in a tie and the House of Representatives had to break the tie The 12th Amendment was ratified to give each elector 1 vote for president and 1 vote for vice-president (ticket)

8 Jefferson never believed political parties would be a permanent feature of the government
“ We are all republicans – we are all federalists.” t. Jefferson * He believed the nation would come to a consensus, HIS

9 How parties grew and what function they served
The next generation of Americans began to see political parties as a positive influence on politics A political party with clear principles offered voters a clear choice Political parties could bridge the distance between various groups Between Central government and the people it represents Between the President and Congress Patronage system developed: local/state/federal Soon, a two party system had developed Rather than hoping the other side would fade away, the 2 parties would compete for support Once installed in power, a party would pursue its agenda The opposing party would challenge their agenda and hold them accountable The two parties became another level of “checks and balances”

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