2 What is the role of political parties in the constitutional system? Lesson 16 pagesWhat is the role of political parties in the constitutional system?Objective: Explain why the Framers opposed the idea of political parties. Describe the other ideas that helped political parties to gain acceptance. Explain the conflicting points of view that led to the development of parties and the roles that political parties have played in the American constitutional system.
3 What did the Framers think about political parties? David Hume (Scottish political philosopher): parties were inevitable results of diverse interests.James Madison thought that factions could be controlled.*Many Framers and philosophers used “parties” and “factions” as synonyms.“an evil that must be eradicated in society”
4 What did the Framers think about political parties? Edmund Burke (Ireland)- without political parties those in opposition to the ruling would turn to conspiracy and intrigue. Parties foster open debate- a good thing.Alexander Hamilton- parties in the legislature could “promote deliberation and circumspection and serve to check excesses in the majority”BUT once the decision is made the opposition should cease.
5 What did the Framers think about political parties? Party System had not been experienced in American up to this point.System on organized, relatively durable political parties that accept one another’s right to exist and compete in elections of government.
6 What ideas and events led to the development of political parties in the 1790s? Parties developed within a decade of the Constitution being ratified. Madison and Hamilton led these parties on opposite sides.Four key issues that were the basis for the first political parties.Power of National GovernmentEconomic VisionForeign PolicyAlien & Sedition Acts
7 What did the Framers think about political parties? 1. The Power of the National Government:Hamilton- 1st Secretary of Treasury- argued Constitution created a gov’t to take on national problems.Jefferson-1st Secretary of State- disagreed. The national government is too strong and too vague that the gov’t could do what ever it wanted.
8 What did the Framers think about political parties? 2. Economic VisionHamilton suggested a number of recommendations to Congress to strengthen the nation’s commercial economy.National Bank- necessary and proper clauseJefferson argued that we were an agrarian society- the elastic clause should be interpreted as “absolutely and indispensably necessary”
9 What did the Framers think about political parties? 3. Foreign PolicyNapoleonic Wars- polarized AmericansHamilton- Support Great Britain, more trade and cultural connectionJefferson- support France, supported us in the American RevolutionWashington- declared neutralityIn opposition Jefferson &Madison form the Democratic-Republican party (1st party) & Hamilton and his supports the take the name “Federalists”.Election of 1796:Federalists- John Adams - PresidentRepublican- Thomas Jefferson- Vice President
10 What did the Framers think about political parties? 4. Alien & Sedition Acts1798- Alien Act – power to president to force foreigners to leave the country who might cause sedition (rebellion).Sedition Act- crime to attack the government. Editors, writers and speaker are affected.Republicans are outragedMadison and Jefferson write theVirginia & Kentucky Resolutions
11 What did the Framers think about political parties? VA & KT Resolutions:States have the right to decide if the national government had exceeded its power.State legislatures could declare acts of Congress null and void.Alien and Sedition Acts motivated the Republicans to earn the presidency in 1800.
12 What was the Revolution of 1800 and what was the aftermath? Election of 1800:John Adams- FederalistThomas Jefferson- RepublicanJefferson wins. First time in recent history that control of the government was given to a new leader as a result of “electoral revolution” rather than hereditary succession or violent overthrow.BUT…it did expose problems in the Constitution.
13 What was the Revolution of 1800 and what was the aftermath? Art II Sec 3: electors vote for two candidates.Highest # votes- President2nd highest- Vice PresidentJefferson & Burr- tied vote was decided in the House of Representatives.By the next election (1804)-12th Amendment passes. Each electors has to vote for 1 president and 1 vice president.Now candidates would be a ticket- Prez and VP running together.
14 What was the Revolution of 1800 and what was the aftermath? Jefferson’s inaugural address:“We are all republicans, we are all federalists”Didn’t believe that parties should be a permanent feature of the American Political System.
15 How did political parties grow, and what functions did they serve? Next generation had a positive view on political parties: they offered a clear choice for voters by outlining their philosophies, platforms and beliefs.Martin Van Buren- 8th President, believed that parties could be the “glue in our constitutional systems”.
16 How did political parties grow, and what functions did they serve? Van Buren:Branches working togetherPresident has allies in CongressPatronage- appointing members of own party to political officesConnection between National Government and local levels of government.Rally support for their candidates.
17 How did political parties grow, and what functions did they serve? Watchdog function:Political party that is out of power serves as a watchdog.Hold the ones in power accountableAdditional set of checks and balances.
18 What part do political parties play in today’s political system? Important Purposes of Political Parties:Mobilize popular participation in nominations and electionsConnect the executive and legislative branchesConnect the national government with state governmentsJoining a political party indicated support for the platform priorities and policiesForum for deliberating about public policiesInterests & issues coexist.Works against faction & passionsPolitical parties: change in government (by voting) agent of stabilityWeed out candidates (primaries)Watchdogs
19 How did political parties grow, and what functions did they serve? Less Favorable Aspects of Political PartiesDominance of Democrats and Republicans makes it very hard for 3rd parties to gain office.
20 Complete Your Reflection! Finishing up!Complete Your Reflection!