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Why not to be a communist? David Lipka, Ph.D. Anglo-American University.

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Presentation on theme: "Why not to be a communist? David Lipka, Ph.D. Anglo-American University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Why not to be a communist? David Lipka, Ph.D. Anglo-American University

2 Contents Theory and history of socialism / communism? Practice of socialism Reasons for failure

3 Gabriel Bonnot de Mably (1709 – 1785) Étienne-Gabriel Morelly Francois Noel Babeuf (1760 – 1797) Francois Charles Marie Fourier 1772 – 1837 Francois Charles Marie Fourier 1) Theory and history of socialism Secular socialism

4 Karl Marx (1818-1883) Considered all his predecessors „utopian thinkers“ Science means silence about the specification of communism Elimination of private property

5 „…the positive transcendence of private property, or human self-estrangement, and therefore the real appropriation of the human essence by and for man... the complete return of man to himself as a social being..." Karl Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts Scientific socialism

6 People freed from division of labor and exchange People freed from necessity of labor Superabundance of good Elimination of all institutions Key features

7 It is up to mankind to establish communism according to the laws of history.laws of history Man is generally good but fettered by wrong institutions - revolution will unleash the true potential…true potential Social dynamics

8 Dictatorship of the proletariat: – coercion – enforced egalitarianism – confiscating and destroying wealth – gradual improvement of material conditions Crude communism

9 Communism - summary Consensus; organic understanding of society Forgetfulness Dialectic of restoration and radical innovation Post-Millenarism Individuality and property as the cause of suffering (alienation)

10 2) Practice of socialism Shortage economy Forced substitution Forced savings

11 11


13 13 3) Reasons for failure Problems of central planning: – Incentives (mobilization of effort) „They pretend to pay us and we pretend to work.“ – Knowledge  problem of economic calculation Allocation Selection

14 Without private property in the means of production, there will be no market for the means of production. Without a market for a means of production, there will be no monetary prices established for the means of production. Without monetary prices, reflecting the relative scarcity of capital goods, economic decision-makers will be unable to rationally calculate the alternative use of capital goods. Economic calculation

15 Thank you for your attention

16 MONDOR'S DAY IN THE SUMMER TimeSleep from 10:30 at night to 3:00 in the morning 3:30Rising, preparations 4:00Morning court, review of the night's adventures 4:30Breakfast, followed by the industrial parade 5:30Session with the group of hunters 7:00Session with the group of fishermen 8:00Lunch, newspapers 9:00Session with a group of horticulturalists, under a tent 10:00Mass 10:30Session with the group of pheasant breeders 11:30Session at the library 1:00DINNER 2:30Session with the greenhouse group 4:00Session with the group of exotic plant growers 5:00Session with the fish-tank group 6:00Snack, in the fields 6:30Session with the sheep-raising group 8:00Session at the Exchange [where tasks for the next day are planned and allocated] 9:00Supper, fifth meal 9:30Art exhibition, concert, dance, theater, receptions 10:30Bed

17 „[As soon as the division] of labour comes into being, each man has a particular, exclusive sphere of activity, which is forced upon him… He is a hunter, a fisherman, a shepherd, or a critical critic, and must remain so if he does not want to lose his means of livelihood; while in communist society, where nobody has one exclusive sphere of activity but each can become accomplished in any branch he wishes, society regulates the general production and thus makes it possible for me to do one thing today and another tomorrow, to hunt in the morning, fish in the afternoon, rear cattle in the evening, criticize after dinner, just as I have a mind, without ever becoming hunter, fisherman, shepherd or critic.“ Karl Marx, The German Ideology, part I

18 “man will realize his natural tendency to arrange things according to the laws of beauty” Economic and Philosophical manuscript (1844)

19 “The new rate of industrial growth will produce enough goods needed to satisfy all the demands of society... Society will achieve an output sufficient for the needs of all members.” Engels, Principles of Communism

20 “Communist man will be enclosed, will develop all the vital elements of contemporary art to the highest point. Man will become immeasurably stronger, wiser and subtler; his body will become more harmonised, his movements more rhythmic, his voice more musical. The forms of life will become dynamically dramatic. The average human type will rise to the heights of an Aristotle, a Goethe, or a Marx. And above the ridge new peaks will rise.“ Leon Trotsky, Literature and Revolution

21 „[c]apitalist production begets, with the inexorability of a law of Nature, its own negation. It is the negation of negation.“ Karl Marx, Capital

22 “...a new type of man will arise... a superman... an exalted man.” Karl Kautsky

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