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Presentation on theme: "IR2002 THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS"— Presentation transcript:


2 HISTORICAL CONTEXT Russian Revolution Emergence of ‘Socialist’ States
The Cold War Fall of Communism

3 THEORY AND PRACTICE Enlightenment Promise
Progressive Theory of History Critique of Capitalism Building an Alternative Social Order

German Philosophy Classical Political Economy French Socialism

5 THREE SOURCES (Continued)
German Idealism (Dialectical Method) Classical Political Economy (Theory of Surplus Value) Utopian Socialism (Scientific Socialism/Class Theory of Revolution)

6 Key Figures of German Idealism
Immanuel Kant ( ) Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787) Critique of Practical Reason (1788) Critique of Judgment (1790)

7 German Idealism (Continued)
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ( ) Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) Science of Logic (1812, 1813, & 1816) Philosophy of Right (1820)

8 Three Central Questions in Philosophy
Nature of Reality (Material or Ideal) Primacy: Matter or Consciousness Relations between Material Reality and Consciousness

9 Marx’s Relation to German Idealism
Dialectical Method 1. The determination of the concept out of itself 2. The contradictory nature and tendencies in each phenomenon 3. The union of analysis and synthesis

10 Materialism Economic forces determine/condition ideology, forms of social consciousness, legal and political institutions

11 Dialectical Materialism
Superstructure IDEOLOGY, FORMS OF SOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESS, LEGAL & POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS (army, police, courts, bureaucracy) Mode of Production RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION (work+ownership/effective control) + FORCES OF PRODUCTION (labour-power+means of production)

12 Utopian Socialism Critique of Capitalism Romantic View of the future
Moral Doctrine

13 Key Figures of Utopian Socialism
Saint Simon ( ) Robert Owen ( ) Charles Fourier ( )

14 Preliminary Remarks Capitalism and Social Life
Historically specific form of social and economic organisation Contradictory Nature of Capitalism

15 Classical Political Economy
Central Focus: Study of Capitalist Society Relations between commodities (exchange of one commodity for another) Marx ( ): Relation between people mediated by exchange (Capital, 1967)

16 Classical Political Economy Key Figures
Adam Smith ( ), Wealth of Nations (1776) David Ricardo ( ), Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817) Jeremy Bentham ( ), Introduction to the Principles of Morals (1780) John Baptiste Say ( ), A Treatise on Political Economy (1803) John Stuart Mill ( ), Principles of Political Economy (1848) n

17 Two Elements 1. Human labour-power becomes a commodity. The wage worker sells labour-power to the capitalist (owner of the means of production: land, factories, and instruments of labour). 2. The worker spends one part of the day covering the cost of maintaining herself/himself and her/his family, while the other part of the day s/he works without reward, creating for the capitalist SURPLUS-VALUE, the source of profit, the source of wealth of the capitalist class.

18 Principal Contradictions
Growing Inequality Impoverishment of the working class Increased class conflict Crisis of capitalism (Solution: Imperialism)


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