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IR2002 THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS MARXISM.

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Presentation on theme: "IR2002 THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS MARXISM."— Presentation transcript:

1 IR2002 THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS MARXISM

2 HISTORICAL CONTEXT Russian Revolution Russian Revolution Emergence of Socialist States Emergence of Socialist States The Cold War The Cold War Fall of Communism Fall of Communism

3 THEORY AND PRACTICE Enlightenment Promise Enlightenment Promise Progressive Theory of History Progressive Theory of History Critique of Capitalism Critique of Capitalism Building an Alternative Social Order Building an Alternative Social Order

4 THREE PRINCIPAL SOURCES German Philosophy German Philosophy Classical Political Economy Classical Political Economy French Socialism French Socialism

5 THREE SOURCES (Continued) German Idealism (Dialectical Method) German Idealism (Dialectical Method) Classical Political Economy (Theory of Surplus Value) Classical Political Economy (Theory of Surplus Value) Utopian Socialism (Scientific Socialism/Class Theory of Revolution) Utopian Socialism (Scientific Socialism/Class Theory of Revolution)

6 Key Figures of German Idealism Immanuel Kant ( ) Immanuel Kant ( ) Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787) Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787) Critique of Practical Reason (1788) Critique of Practical Reason (1788) Critique of Judgment (1790) Critique of Judgment (1790)

7 German Idealism (Continued) Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ( ) Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ( ) Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) Science of Logic (1812, 1813, & 1816) Science of Logic (1812, 1813, & 1816) Philosophy of Right (1820) Philosophy of Right (1820)

8 Three Central Questions in Philosophy Nature of Reality (Material or Ideal) Nature of Reality (Material or Ideal) Primacy: Matter or Consciousness Primacy: Matter or Consciousness Relations between Material Reality and Consciousness Relations between Material Reality and Consciousness

9 Marxs Relation to German Idealism Dialectical Method Dialectical Method 1. The determination of the concept out of itself 1. The determination of the concept out of itself 2. The contradictory nature and tendencies in each phenomenon 2. The contradictory nature and tendencies in each phenomenon 3. The union of analysis and synthesis 3. The union of analysis and synthesis

10 Materialism Economic forces determine/condition ideology, forms of social consciousness, legal and political institutions Economic forces determine/condition ideology, forms of social consciousness, legal and political institutions

11 Dialectical Materialism Superstructure Superstructure IDEOLOGY, FORMS OF SOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESS, LEGAL & POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS IDEOLOGY, FORMS OF SOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESS, LEGAL & POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS (army, police, courts, bureaucracy) (army, police, courts, bureaucracy) Mode of Production Mode of Production RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION (work+ownership/effective control) (work+ownership/effective control) + FORCES OF PRODUCTION FORCES OF PRODUCTION (labour-power+means of production) (labour-power+means of production)

12 Utopian Socialism Critique of Capitalism Critique of Capitalism Romantic View of the future Romantic View of the future Moral Doctrine Moral Doctrine

13 Key Figures of Utopian Socialism Saint Simon ( ) Saint Simon ( ) Robert Owen ( ) Robert Owen ( ) Charles Fourier ( ) Charles Fourier ( )

14 Preliminary Remarks Capitalism and Social Life Capitalism and Social Life Historically specific form of social and economic organisation Historically specific form of social and economic organisation Contradictory Nature of Capitalism Contradictory Nature of Capitalism

15 Classical Political Economy Central Focus: Study of Capitalist Society Central Focus: Study of Capitalist Society Relations between commodities (exchange of one commodity for another) Relations between commodities (exchange of one commodity for another) Marx ( ): Relation between people mediated by exchange (Capital, 1967) Marx ( ): Relation between people mediated by exchange (Capital, 1967)

16 Classical Political Economy Key Figures Adam Smith ( ), Wealth of Nations (1776) Adam Smith ( ), Wealth of Nations (1776) David Ricardo ( ), Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817) David Ricardo ( ), Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817) Jeremy Bentham ( ), Introduction to the Principles of Morals (1780) Jeremy Bentham ( ), Introduction to the Principles of Morals (1780) John Baptiste Say ( ), A Treatise on Political Economy (1803) John Baptiste Say ( ), A Treatise on Political Economy (1803) John Stuart Mill ( ), Principles of Political Economy (1848) John Stuart Mill ( ), Principles of Political Economy (1848) n

17 Two Elements 1. Human labour-power becomes a commodity. The wage worker sells labour-power to the capitalist (owner of the means of production: land, factories, and instruments of labour). 1. Human labour-power becomes a commodity. The wage worker sells labour-power to the capitalist (owner of the means of production: land, factories, and instruments of labour). 2. The worker spends one part of the day covering the cost of maintaining herself/himself and her/his family, while the other part of the day s/he works without reward, creating for the capitalist SURPLUS-VALUE, the source of profit, the source of wealth of the capitalist class. 2. The worker spends one part of the day covering the cost of maintaining herself/himself and her/his family, while the other part of the day s/he works without reward, creating for the capitalist SURPLUS-VALUE, the source of profit, the source of wealth of the capitalist class.

18 Principal Contradictions Growing Inequality Growing Inequality Impoverishment of the working class Impoverishment of the working class Increased class conflict Increased class conflict Crisis of capitalism (Solution: Imperialism) Crisis of capitalism (Solution: Imperialism)


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