Presentation on theme: "MANAGING PEOPLE Leaders Managers Careers Global Human Resource Systems (the process by which people are managed)"— Presentation transcript:
MANAGING PEOPLE Leaders Managers Careers Global Human Resource Systems (the process by which people are managed)
Leadership Theories Traits Those that don’t change readily, e.g., height, gender Those that change with difficulty, values Those that can be developed Leadership Styles Orientation to people Task orientation Contingency—leader’s style needs to adapt to the context “New” leadership such as transformational or connective leaders
Steven Rhinesmith (2000) 1. Managing competitiveness by looking at the "big picture" 2. Managing complexity 3. Managing alignment 4. Managing change 5. Managing teams 6. Managing learning by being open and learning globally
Black, Morrison, and Gregersen (1999) 1. Inquisitiveness 2. An ability to embrace duality 3. Character to develop trust and goodwill among people from different cultural backgrounds 4. “Savvy" that allows a leader to see what needs to be done and marshall resources for accomplishment
Rosen, Digh, Singer and Phillips (2000) 1. Personal literacy including understanding self and one's own limitations and abilities 2. Social literacy to assemble strong teams and unleash collective strength 3. Business literacy including understanding the organization and its environment 4. Cultural literacy includes knowing about and leveraging culture differences
McCall and Hollenbeck (2002) 1. Open-minded and flexible in thinking and tactics pursued 2. Cultural interest and sensitivity 3. Ability to deal with complexity 4. Resilience, resourcefulness, optimism, and energy 5. Honesty and integrity 6. A stable personal life 7. Technical or business skills
Global Leadership Attributes and Theories A global mindset—a way of thinking that looks beyond self and immediate circumstances—trait; new leader Know the business and its environment—know the environment, savvy, big picture thinking, alignment—contingency Create and convey a clear vision with integrity—clear sense of purpose; convey to others;character; honesty; integrity—trait, leadership style Develop self-awareness and understanding—personal literacy; self-knowledge; reflection—trait; new leader Manage diversity—diverse groups and structures; people from many backgrounds—leadership style, trait Continuously learn—inquisitiveness; being open to others and to new information; leader and learner—new leader
Women in Global Leadership relatively few female CEOs in global firms—.6 Fortune 500 firms were headed by women (2003), and another 393 Fortune 500 firms counted no women among their top five executives (Jones, 2003). Often when women are in charge of companies in other nations, it is because they are members of the company's controlling family. According to the Women's Research and Education Institute, at current rates it would take 75–100 years for women to achieve economic integration at every organizational level.
Women and Leadership Some believe that women's management styles, interests, and business approaches differ from men throughout the world (Gibson, 1995; Helgeson, 1990; Rosener, 1990). Helen Fisher (1999) believes that gender differences such as female ability to see the big picture and a willingness to consider multiple points of view equip women to become leaders in a more complex global world. Observations of few or no gender differences among managers (Powell and Graves, 2003) lead others to argue that while there are distinctions between leaders, few of them are due to gender alone (Due Billing, and Alvesson, 2000).
Leading and Managing Leaders envision; managers get the job done. This might mean different functions such as: LeaderManager Manage symbols Manage results Provide direction Follow directions See possibilities See problems
Middle Management Pressures from the top and organizational downsizing have increased the size, scope, and importance of the middle managers' role
Attributes of the Global Manager, according to: Moran and Riesenberger (1994) Adler and Bartholomew (1992) Ohmae (1990)
Moran and Riesenberger (1994): 1. A global mindset 2. An ability to work as an equal with persons of diverse backgrounds 3. A long-term orientation 4. The ability to facilitate organizational learning 5. The ability to create learning systems 6. The ability to motivate employees to excellence 7. Skill in negotiation and an ability to approach conflict in a collaborative mode 8. Skillful choices and assignments for managers worldwide 9. The ability to lead and participate effectively in multicultural teams 10. An understanding of one's own cultural values and assumptions 11. An ability to profile the organizational and national culture of others with accuracy 12. Avoidance of cultural mistakes and ability to behave in an appropriate manner in all countries (p. 191)
Adler and Bartholomew (1992) Global perspective Local responsiveness Synergistic learning that makes it possible to work with and learn from people from many cultures An ability to collaborate with others on an equal basis
Ohmae (1990) Can be from any country Typically speaks more than one language fluently Has lived and worked in more than one country Often has a passport from more than one country Frequently the child of parents who are from different nations
Managerial Attributes in Europe The European style of management differs from U.S. and Japanese management styles on the basis of four characteristics: 1. A greater orientation toward people as individuals 2. A higher level of internal negotiations between superordinates and subordinates 3. Greater skills at managing international diversity and 4. An enhanced ability to manage between extremes like short-run versus long-run goals Roland Calori and Bruno Dufour (1995) In Europe, the most admired senior managers are humane, professional, determined, close to employees, and communicate well (Brown, 1994)
Managerial Attributes in Asia In a study of perceptions of good leadership in Asian organizations (Selvarajah, Duignan, Suppiah, Lane, and Nuttman, 1995), top priority was on honesty, followed by strategic vision, and recognizing good work in others.
Career Development 1. Knowledge-based technical specialty 2. Multicultural and international experience; cross-functional expertise that allows them to be both managers and technical experts 3. Future managers will be collaborative leaders in both temporary and permanent groups 4. Use own skills to balance time at work; work/life integration 5. Flexibility will be the most important individual trait for successful managers, but integrity and trustworthiness are part of this equation as well
William Van Dusen Wishard (1995) 1. There is a need to discern what is permanent and immutable 2. We must learn to make interconnections between people, events, and different categories of life because interdependence is an emerging condition of life 3. We must learn to know ourselves 4. We each need some understanding of how change and technology are affecting people and institutions 5. We need to be open to dimensions of existence that are difficult to understand, value or control; within ourselves we need to value intuition 6. There is a need to interact with people in a manner that will bridge racial and cultural differences 7. There is a need to have a personal sense of creating something new for the future
HR Systems Go Global Human Resources is the process through which organizations recruit, select, compensate, train and evaluate people The integrative approach to human resource management found in global firms is increasingly called Strategic International Human Resource Management (SIHRM) These systems require strategically oriented HR managers able to integrate human resource activities on a global scale
Five Top Reasons for SIHRM to facilitate: 1. Global competitiveness 2. Efficiency 3. Local responsiveness 4. Organizational flexibility 5. Organizational learning and knowledge transfer
Approaches to Management An ethnocentric approach consolidates control at headquarters. Important decisions are made in the home country, and expatriates from the home country staff key posts abroad. A polycentric approach staffs abroad with host country nationals who have some decision autonomy, but few of these managers are promoted to jobs at headquarters. A regiocentric approach employs a wider pool of managers within a geographic region like Asia or Latin America, employing host-country and/or third-country nationals. Although these managers have some degree of decision-making autonomy within their regions, they are seldom brought into jobs at headquarters. A geocentric approach to staffing identifies and selects the best person for the job regardless of nationality, and decision-making often is decentralized.