2Maximizing Global Human Resources Important areas of attentionTo maximize long term retention and use of international cadre through career management so that the company can develop a top management team with global experienceTo develop effective global management teamsTo understand, value, and promote the role of women and minorities in international management in order to maximize those underutilized resourcesTo maximize the benefits of an increasingly diverse workforce in various locations around the worldTo work with the host country labor relations system to effect strategic implementation and employee productivity.
3Skills Learned Abroad Managerial skills Tolerance for ambiguity Multiple perspectiveAbility to work with and manage others
4Developing an International Management Cadre Preparation, Adaptation, and RepatriationThe Role of the Expatriate SpouseExpatriate Career ManagementThe Role of repatriation in developing a global management cadre
5Phases in the Expatriate Transition Process The exit transition from the home country, the success of which will be determined largely by the quality of preparation the expatriate has received;the entry transition to the host country, in which successful acculturation (or early exit) will depend largely on monitoring and support; andthe entry transition back to the home country or to a new host country, in which the level of reverse culture shock and the ease of re-acculturation will depend on previous stages of preparation and support.
6Organizational Culture Organizational Socialization The Adjustment ModelJobNonworkIndividualMode of AdjustmentOrganizational CultureOrganizational Socialization
7Culture ShockCulture shock is a state of disorientation and anxiety about not knowing how to behave in an unfamiliar culture. The cause of culture shock is the trauma people experience in new and different cultures, where they lose the familiar signs and cues that they had used to interact in daily life and where they must learn to cope with a vast array of new cultural cues and expectations.
8Stages of Culture Shock Honeymoon – when positive attitudes and expectations, excitement, and a tourist feeling prevailIrritation and hostility – the crisis stage when cultural differences result in problems at work, at home, and in daily livingGradual adjustment – a period of recovery in which the “patient” gradually becomes able to understand and predict patterns of behavior, use the language, and deal with daily activities, and the family starts to accept their new lifeBiculturalism – the stage at which the manager and family members grow to accept and appreciate local people and practices and are able to function effectively in two cultures
9Subculture ShockSubculture shock occurs when a manager is transferred to another part of the country where there are cultural differences – essentially from what she or he perceives to be a “majority” culture to a “minority” one.
10Categories of Success for Expatriate Managers Job factorsRelational dimensions such as cultural empathy and flexibilityMotivational stateFamily situationLanguage skills
11Major Causes of Expatriate Failure Selection based on headquarters criteria rather than assignment needsInadequate preparation, training, and orientation prior to assignmentAlienation or lack of support from headquartersInability to adapt to local culture and working environmentProblems with spouse and children – poor adaptation, family unhappinessInsufficient compensation and financial supportPoor programs for career support and repatriation
12Repatriation of Expatriates Reasons for Returning Duty is finished overseasWant children educated in a home-country schoolNot happy with the overseas assignmentSpouse or children do not want to stayFail to do a good job at the task assigned
13Repatriation of Expatriates Readjustment Problems The “out of sight, out of mind” syndromeOrganizational changes made during the time the individual was abroad may make one’s position redundantTechnological advances in the parent headquarters may render one’s existing skills and knowledge obsolete
14Support Systems for a Successful Repatriation Program (as recommended by Tung) A mentor program to monitor the expatriate’s career path while abroad and upon repatriationAs an alternative to the mentor program, the establishment of a special organizational unit for the purposes of career planning and continuing guidance for the expatriateA system of supplying information and maintaining contacts with the expatriate so that he or she may continue to feel a part of the home organization.
15Global Management Teams The term global management teams describes collections of managers from several countries who must rely on group collaboration if each member is to experience the optimum of success and goal achievement.
16Global Teams in the Modern Global Enterprise (Exhibit 10-2) Global Global Networked InternationalEnvironment Strategy Global TeamsOrganizationGlobal competition;Technologicaldevelopments;Markets;Government policiesOptimizingglobalresources forcompetitiveadvantageGlobal coordinationand integration;local responsiveness;organizationalstructure, systems;personnel policiesand reward systemsthat supportcooperationCosmopolitanHQ’s teams; strategicdevelopment teams;HQ’s subsidiary teams;technology transferteams; coalition (jointventure) teams
17The Role of Women in International Management (Adler’s recommendations) Avoid assuming that a female executive will fail because of the way she will be received or because of problems experienced by female spousesAvoid assuming that a woman will not want to go overseasGive female managers every chance to succeed by giving them the titles, status, and recognition appropriate to the position – as well as sufficient time to be effective.