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Early agricultural society population explosion caused by surplus Emergence of villages and towns Jericho, earliest known Neolithic village Mud huts and.

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Presentation on theme: "Early agricultural society population explosion caused by surplus Emergence of villages and towns Jericho, earliest known Neolithic village Mud huts and."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Early agricultural society population explosion caused by surplus Emergence of villages and towns Jericho, earliest known Neolithic village Mud huts and defensive walls Specialization of labor Neolithic site of Çatal Hüyük, eight thousand people Prehistoric craft industries pottery, metallurgy, and textile production Social distinctions, due to private land ownership The origins of urban life Emergence of cities, larger and more complex than villages Earliest cities in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, 4000 to 3500 B.C.E.

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4 I.Mesopotamia: "the land between the rivers" I.Valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates II.Little rain, so area needs irrigation (small scale by 6000 B.C.E.) III.Food supplies increase which leads to human population increases I.Sumer (in south) becomes population center IV.First cities emerge, 4000 B.C.E. I.Between 3200 and 2350 B.C.E., they evolve into city-states (control of surrounding region) II.Governments sponsor building projects and irrigation III.Attacks by others led to wall building and military development II.The course of empire I.Sargon of Akkad ( B.C.E.) I.Coup against king of Kish II.Seizes trade routes and natural resources III.Gradually empire weakens and collapses about 2000 B.C.E. II.Hammurabi ( B.C.E.) I.Centralizes the bureaucracy and regulates taxation II.Capital is Babylon III.Law Code: law of retribution and importance of social status III.The later Mesopotamian empires I.Assyrians (northern Mesopotamia), cities are Nineveh and Assur II.Powerful army: professional officers (merit), chariots, archers, iron weapons III.New Babylonian empire and Nebuchadnezzar ( B.C.E.) I.Hanging gardens of palace shows wealth and luxury

5 I.Economic specialization and trade I.Bronze (made from copper and tin); used in weapons and later agricultural tools II.Iron (about 1000 B.C.E.), cheaper and more widely available; used in weapons and tools III.Wheel (about 3500 B.C.E.) helps trade; carts can carry more goods further II.The emergence of a patriarchal society I.Social classes I.Cities: more opportunities to accumulate wealth II.Kings (hereditary) and nobles (royal family and supporters) are highest class III.Priests and priestesses rule temple communities with large incomes and staff IV.Free commoners (peasants), dependent clients (no property); pay taxes and labor on building projects V.Slaves (POWs, criminals, debt servitude): mostly domestic servants II.Patriarchy I.Hammurabi's code: men are head of the household II.Women get fewer rights after 2000 B.C.E. III.Cuneiform, Mesopotamian writing style, becomes standard I.Reed stylus (wedge-shaped) pressed in clay then baked II.Mostly commercial and tax documents IV.Literature: astronomy, mathematics, abstract (religious and literary like Gilgamesh)

6 I.Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews I.Early Hebrews are pastoral nomads between Mesopotamia and Egypt (second millennium B.C.E.) I.Abraham leads group to Palestine 1850 B.C.E. II.Descendents borrow law of retribution(revenge) III.Pass down the flood story from Mesopotamia II.Some migrate to Egypt in eighteenth century B.C.E. then back to Palestine with Moses I.Twelve tribes become Israelites II.Mesopotamian-style monarchs with Jerusalem as capital III.Moses and monotheism I.Ten Commandments: moral and ethical standards for followers II.Compilation of teachings into Torah ( B.C.E.) IV.Assyrians conquer I.Conquer Israel in north and Judah in south and destroy Jerusalem II.Deportees return to Judea; become known as Jews (586 B.C.E.) III.Prophets in this period increase devotion of people IV.Build distinct Jewish community in Judea with strong group identity II.The Phoenicians I.Develop into kingdoms of independent city-states II.Little agriculture; live on trade and communications networks I.Overland trade to Mesopotamia; influence on culture II.Sea trade most important; get raw materials, trade for manufactured goods III.Have early alphabetical script (1500 B.C.E.)

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8 I.Indo-European origins I.Linguists discover similarities between many languages; they must be related II.Originate in steppes of central Asia as pastoral people III.Domesticate horses; learn to ride; use horses with carts, then chariots II.Indo-European expansion and its effects I.Indo-European society breaks up about 3000 B.C.E.; peoples gradually migrate II.Hittites settle in central Anatolia about 2000 B.C.E. I.Build powerful kingdoms II.Conquer Babylonian empire 1595 B.C.E. III.Dissolve by about 1200 B.C.E. IV.Technology: light horse-drawn chariots (spokes) and iron metallurgy III.Some migrate into central Asia by 2000 B.C.E. IV.Other migrations: Greece, Italy, central Europe, western Europe, Britain I.All pastoral agriculturalists II.All speak related languages and worship similar deities V.Later wave of migrations to Iran and India ("Aryan")

9 I.Climatic change and the development of agriculture in Africa I.Sahara region used to be grassy steppe lands with water (10,000 B.C.E.) I.Abundant hunting, fishing, wild grains II.Permanent settlements and the growing of sorghum and yams (7500 B.C.E.) III.Small states with semidivine rulers (5000 B.C.E.) II.Climate becomes hotter and drier after 5000 B.C.E. I.People are driven into river regions--Nile II.Annual flooding makes rich soil for agriculture II.Egypt and Nubia: "gifts of the Nile" I.Egypt--lower third of Nile River; Nubia--middle third of Nile II.After 5000 B.C.E. peoples cultivate gourds and watermelons, domesticate donkeys and cattle (from Sudan), and grow wheat and barley (from Mesopotamia) III.Agriculture easy in Egypt (due to Nile flooding) but more work in Nubia IV.States begin to emerge by 4000 B.C.E., small kingdoms by 3300 B.C.E.

10 I.Egypt, large and prosperous state by 3100 B.C.E. I.Menes at Memphis unites Upper and Lower Egypt II.Pharaoh, absolute ruler and owns all land II.Archaic Period ( B.C.E.) and Old Kingdom ( B.C.E.) I.Great pyramids of Giza built during this period; Khufu the largest II.Violence between Egypt and Nubia (Egypt dominates from B.C.E.) III.Nubia later develops into Kingdom of Kush IV.Interaction through diplomacy, Nubian mercenaries, and intermarriage I.Turmoil and empire I.Period of upheaval after Old Kingdom ( B.C.E.) II.Middle Kingdom ( B.C.E.) III.Nomadic horsemen, Hyksos, invade Egypt I.Using bronze weapons and chariots (Egypt does not have) II.Captures Memphis in 1674 B.C.E. IV.New Kingdom ( B.C.E.) I.Pharaoh gains power, huge army, large bureaucracy II.Building projects: temples, palaces, statues III.Tuthmosis III ( B.C.E.) built empire including Palestine, Syrian, Nubia IV.Then Egypt falls into a long period of decline V.Egyptians driven out of Nubia in 1100 B.C.E. I.Nubian Kingdom of Kush; capital is Napata II.King Kashta conquers Thebes (in Egypt) in 760 B.C.E. VI.Assyrians with iron weapons invade from the north

11 The Great Sphinx and the Pyramid of Giza

12 I.The emergence of cities and stratified societies I.Nubian cities I.Kerma, dominates trade routes II.Napata, most prosperous city after Nubian conquest of Egypt III.Meroë, most influential city after Assyrian invasion because it is farther south II.Social classes I.Egypt: peasants and slaves (agriculture), pharaoh, professional military and administrators II.Nubia: complex and hierarchical society (can tell from tombs) III.Patriarchy in both but women have more influence than in Mesopotamia I.Women act as regents, like female pharaoh Hatshepsut II.Nubia: women serve as queens, priestesses, and scribes II.Economic specialization and trade I.Bronze important but copper and tin rare and expensive II.Iron metallurgy develops independently in Sudan III.Transportation: sailboats, carts, and donkey caravans IV.Trade networks I.Egypt and Nubia: exotic goods from Nubia ebony, gold, gems, slaves and pottery, wine, linen, decorative items from Egypt II.Egypt and the north: especially wood, like cedar from Lebanon

13 I.Early writing in the Nile valley I.Hieroglyphics found on monuments and papyrus by 3200 B.C.E. II.Hieratic script, everyday writing B.C.E. III.Demotic and Coptic scripts adapt Greek writing IV.Scribes live very privileged lives V.Nubia adapts Egyptian writing until Meroitic in fifth century B.C.E. (untranslated) II.The development of organized religious traditions I.Principal gods: sun gods Amon and Re II.Brief period of monotheism: Aten I.Pharaoh Akhenaten's idea of a new capital at Akhetaten II.Orders all other gods' names chiseled out; their names die with him III.Mummification I.At first only pharaohs are mummified (Old Kingdom) II.Later ruling classes and wealthy can afford it III.Eventually commoners have it too (Middle and New Kingdom) IV.Cult of Osiris I.Brother Seth murders Osiris and scatters his body II.Wife Isis gathers him up and gods restore him to life in underworld III.Becomes associated with Nile, crops, life/death, immortality IV.Osiris judges the heart of the dead against the feather of truth V.Nubians combine Egyptian religions with their own

14 I.The dynamics of Bantu expansion I.Bantu--language group from west central Africa I.Live along banks of rivers; use canoes II.Cultivate yams and oil palms III.Live in clan-based villages IV.Trade with hunting/gathering forest people II.Early migrations of Bantu ( B.C.E.) I.Move south and west into the forest lands II.Move south to Congo River and east to Great Lakes region III.Absorb much of the population of hunter/gather/fisher people IV.By 1000 B.C.E. occupy most of Africa south of the equator III.Features of the Bantu I.Use canoes and settle along banks of rivers; spread from there II.Agricultural surplus causes them to move inland from rivers III.Become involved in trade IV.Bantu rate of migration increases after 1000 B.C.E. due to appearance of iron I.Iron tools allow them to clear more land for agriculture II.Iron weapons give them stronger position II.Early agricultural societies of sub-Saharan Africa I.Many other societies besides Bantu migrate II.Spread of agriculture to most of sub-Saharan Africa by 1000 B.C.E. III.Mostly small communities led by chiefs with "age sets" and initiation rites IV.Religious differences by area I.Some worship single, impersonal divine force representing good and bad II.Many individuals pray to ancestors and local gods for intervention V.Much mixing and intermingling of cultures

15 I.Background I.Neolithic villages in Indus River valley by 3000 B.C.E. II.Earliest remains inaccessible because of silt deposits and rising water table III.Also little known because writing not yet translated II.Foundations of Harappan society I.The Indus River I.Runs through north India, with sources at Hindu Kush and the Himalayas II.Wheat and barley were cultivated in Indus valley III.Complex society of Dravidians, 3000 B.C.E. II.Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro: two main cities I.Each city had a fortified citadel and a large granary II.Broad streets, marketplaces, temples, public buildings III.Harappan society and culture I.Social distinctions, as seen from living styles II.Religious beliefs strongly emphasized fertility III.Harappan society declined from 1900 B.C.E. onward I.Ecological degradation led to a subsistence crisis II.Another possibility: natural catastrophes such as floods or earthquakes III.Population began to abandon their cities by about 1700 B.C.E. IV.Almost entirely collapsed by about 1500 B.C.E. V.Some Harappan cultural traditions maintained

16 I.The Aryans and India I.The early Aryans I.Depended heavily on a pastoral economy II.No writing system, but had orally transmitted works called the Vedas III.Sacred language (Sanskrit) and daily-use language (Prakit) II.The Vedic Age: B.C.E. I.A boisterous period; conflicts with indigenous peoples II.Indra, the Aryans' war god and military hero III.Aryan chiefdoms fought ferociously among themselves led by rajas II.Origins of the caste system I.Caste and varna I.The meaning of caste: hereditary, unchangeable social classes II.The Sanskrit word varna, "color," refers to social classes II.Social distinctions in the late Vedic Age I.Four main varnas, recognized after 1000 B.C.E.: brahmins (priests), kshatriyas (warriors and aristocrats), vaishyas (cultivators, artisans, and merchants), shudras (landless peasants and serfs) II.Later the category of the untouchables was added III.Jati, or subcastes, were determined by occupations III.Development of patriarchal society I.Patriarchal and patrilineal society I.Advised men to treat women with honor and respect II.Subjected women to the control and guidance of men III.Women's duties: to bear children and maintain the household II.Sati, social custom in which widow throws self on funeral pyre

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18 I.Aryan religion I.Aryan gods I.Gods of the sun, the sky, the moon, fire, health, disease II.God Varuna: ethical concern, cosmic order II.Ritual sacrifices were more important than ethics I.Priests were specialists of the ritual sacrifices II.Ritual sacrifices for rewards from the divine power II.The blending of Aryan and Dravidian values I.The Upanishads, works of religious teachings ( B.C.E.) I.The religious forums: dialogues between disciples and sages II.Brahman: the universal soul III.Highest goal: to escape reincarnation and join with Brahman IV.Samsara: an individual soul was born many times V.Karma: specific incarnations that a soul experienced II.Religion and Vedic society I.Samsara and karma reinforced caste and social hierarchy II.Upanishads were also spiritual and intellectual contemplations III.Taught to observe high ethical standards: discourage greed, envy, vice IV.Respect for all living things, a vegetarian diet

19 Early agricultural society and the Xia dynasty The Yellow River Water source at high plateau of Tibet Loess soil carried by the river's water, hence "yellow" "China's Sorrow"--extensive flooding Loess provided rich soil, soft and easy to work The Xia dynasty Established about 2200 B.C.E. Legendary King Yu, the dynasty founder, a hero of flood control Erlitou: possibly the capital city of the Xia The Shang dynasty: B.C.E. Arose in the southern and eastern areas of the Xia realm Many written records and material remains discovered Bronze metallurgy, monopolized by ruling elite Horses and chariots traveled with Indo-European migrants to China The Shang capital moved six times Lavish tombs of Shang kings with thousands of objects The Zhou dynasty: B.C.E. Zhou gradually eclipsed Shang Mandate of heaven, the right to rule The Zhou needed to justify the overthrow Ruler as "the son of heaven".Mandate of heaven only given to virtuous rulers The fall of the Zhou Nomadic invasion sacked Zhou capital in 711 B.C.E. The last king of the Zhou abdicated his position in 256 B.C.E.

20 The Shang dynasty: B.C.E. Arose in the southern and eastern areas of the Xia realm Many written records and material remains discovered Bronze metallurgy, monopolized by ruling elite Horses and chariots traveled with Indo-European migrants to China The Shang capital moved six times Lavish tombs of Shang kings with thousands of objects The Zhou dynasty: B.C.E. Zhou gradually eclipsed Shang Mandate of heaven, the right to rule The Zhou needed to justify the overthrow Ruler as "the son of heaven".Mandate of heaven only given to virtuous rulers The fall of the Zhou Nomadic invasion sacked Zhou capital in 711 B.C.E. The last king of the Zhou abdicated his position in 256 B.C.E.

21 I.The social order I.The ruling elites with their lavish consumption of bronze I.Hereditary aristocrats with extensive landholding II.Administrative and military offices III.Manuals of etiquette II.Free artisans and craftsmen mostly worked for elites III.Merchants and trade were important I.Trade networks linked China with west and south II.Oar-propelled boats traded with Korea and offshore islands IV.Peasants, the majority of population I.Landless peasants provided labor II.Lived in small subterranean houses III.Women's work: wine making, weaving, silkworm raising IV.Wood, bone, stone tools before iron was spread in the sixth century B.C.E. V.Slaves, mostly war prisoners

22 I.The secular cultural tradition I.Absence of organized religion and priestly class II.Believed in the impersonal heavenly power--tian III.Oracle bones used by fortune-tellers I.Inscribed question, subjected to heat, read cracks II.Discovery of the "dragon bones" in 1890s IV.Early Chinese writing, from pictograph to ideograph I.More than two thousand characters identified on oracle bones II.Modern Chinese writing is direct descendant of Shang writing II.Thought and literature I.Zhou literature--many kinds of books I.The Book of Change, a manual of diviners II.The Book of History, the history of the Zhou III.The Book of Rites, the rules of etiquette and rituals for aristocrats IV.The Book of Songs, a collection of verses--most notable work II.Most Zhou writings have perished

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24 I.Chinese cultivators and nomadic peoples of central Asia I.Nomadic peoples of the steppe lands--herders I.Exchange of products between nomads and Chinese farmers II.Nomads frequently invaded rich agricultural society III.Nomads did not imitate Chinese ways IV.Nomads relied on grains and manufactured goods of the Chinese II.The southern expansion of Chinese society I.The Yangzi valley; dependable river; two crops of rice per year II.The indigenous peoples of southern China I.Many were assimilated into Chinese agricultural society II.Some were pushed to hills and mountains III.Some migrated to Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand III.The state of Chu in the central region of Yanzi I.Challenged the Zhou for supremacy II.Adopted Chinese political and social traditions and writing

25 I.The Olmecs I.Migration to Mesoamerica I.Large wave of humans traveled from Siberia to Alaska around 13,000 B.C.E. II.By 9500 B.C.E., humans reached the southernmost part of South America III.As hunting became difficult, agriculture began (7500 B.C.E.) II.Early agriculture: beans, squashes, chilis; later, maize became the staple (5000 B.C.E.) I.Agricultural villages appeared after 3000 B.C.E. II.No large domesticated animals, no wheeled vehicles III.Ceremonial centers by the end of the second millennium B.C.E. IV.Olmecs, the "rubber people,"lived near the Gulf of Mexico (1200 B.C.E. ) I.Elaborate complexes built II.The colossal human heads--possibly likenesses of rulers III.Rulers' power shown in construction of huge pyramids IV.Trade in jade and obsidian V.Decline of Olmecs: systematically destroyed ceremonial centers by 400 B.C.E. V.Influence of Olmec: maize, ceremonial centers, calendar, human sacrifice, ball game

26 I.Heirs of the Olmecs: the Maya I.The Maya lived in the highlands of Guatemala I.Besides maize, they also cultivated cotton and cacao II.Tikal was the most important Maya political center, 300 to 900 C.E. III.Maya warfare: warriors had prestige; captives were slaves or victims IV.Chichén Itzá, power by the ninth century; loose empire in Yucatan V.Maya decline began in 800 C.E.; many Mayans deserted their cities II.The Maya calendar had both solar and ritual years interwoven III.Maya writing was ideographic and syllabic; only four books survive IV.Religious thought I.Popol Vuh, a Maya creation myth, taught that gods created humans out of maize and water II.Gods maintained agricultural cycles in exchange for honors and sacrifices III.Bloodletting rituals honored gods for rains IV.The Mayan ball game was used to settle conflicts between cheids

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28 I.The city of Teotihuacan in the highlands of Mexico I.Colossal pyramids of sun and moon II.High point between 400 and 600 C.E.; two hundred thousand inhabitants III.Paintings and murals reflect the importance of priests II.The Chavín Cult, from about 900 to 300 B.C.E., Andean Socitey I.Complexity of Andean society increases during Chavín I.Devised techniques of producing cotton textiles and fishing nets II.Discovered gold, silver, and copper metallurgy III.Cities began to appear shortly after Chavín cult IV.Early Andeans did not make use of writing Pyramid of the Sun

29 I.The Achaemenid Empire I.Medes and Persians migrated from central Asia to Persia before 1000 B.C.E. I.Indo-European speakers, sharing cultural traits with Aryans II.Challenged the Assyrian and Babylonian empires II.Cyrus the Achaemenid (the Shepherd) (reigned B.C.E.) I.Became king of Persian tribes in 558 B.C.E. II.All of Iran under his control by 548 B.C.E. III.Established a vast empire from India to borders of Egypt III.Cyrus's son, Cambyses (reigned B.C.E.), conquered Egypt in 525 IV.Darius (reigned B.C.E.); largest extent of empire; population thirty-five million I.New capital at Persepolis, 520 B.C.E. V.Achaemenid administration I.Twenty-three satrapies (Persian governors), appointed by central government II.Local officials were from local population III.Standardization of coins and laws IV.Communication systems: Persian Royal Road and postal stations II.Decline and fall of the Achaemenid Empire I.Xerxes (reigned B.C.E.) I.Retreated from the policy of cultural toleration II.The Persian Wars ( B.C.E.) I.Rebellion of Ionian Greeks II.Persian rulers failed to put down the rebellion, sparred for 150 years III.Alexander of Macedon invaded Persia in 334 B.C.E. I.Battle of Gaugamela, the end of Achaemenid empire, in 331 B.C.E. II.Alexander burned the city of Persepolis

30 I.Seleucus inherited most of Achaemenid when Alexander died I.Retained the Achaemenid system of administration II.Opposition from native Persians; lost control over northern India and Iran II.The Parthians, based in Iran, extend to Mesopotamia I.Power of Parthian was heavy cavalry II.Mithradates I established a empire through conquests from B.C.E. III.Parthian government followed the example of Achaemenid administration III.The Sasanids, from Persia, toppled Parthians; ruled C.E. I.Merchants brought in various crops from India and China II.Shapur I ( C.E.); buffer states with Romans; standoff with Kushan III.In 651 C.E., empire incorporated into Islamic empire

31 I.Social development in classical Persia I.Nomadic society; importance of family and clan relationships II.Imperial bureaucrats I.Imperial administration called for educated bureaucrats II.Shared power and influence with warriors and clan leaders III.Free classes were bulk of Persian society I.In the city: artisans, craftsmen, merchants, civil servants II.In the countryside: peasants, some of whom were building underground canals (qanat) IV.Large class of slaves who were prisoners of war and debtors II.Economic foundations of classical Persia I.Agriculture was the economic foundation II.Trade from India to Egypt I.Standardized coins, good trade routes, markets, banks II.Specialization of production in different regions

32 I.Zarathustra and his faith I.Zoroastrianism I.Emerged from the teachings of Zarathustra II.Visions; supreme god (Ahura Mazda) made Zarathustra prophet III.The Gathas, Zarathustra's hymns in honor of deities IV.Teachings preserved later in writing, by magi V.Compilation of the holy scriptures, Avesta, under Sasanid dynasty II.Zoroastrian teachings I.Ahura Mazda as a supreme deity, with six lesser deities II.Cosmic conflict between Ahura Mazda (good) and Angra Mainyu (evil) III.Heavenly paradise and hellish realm as reward and punishment IV.The material world as a blessing V.Moral formula: good words, good thoughts, good deeds III.Popularity of Zoroastrianism grows from sixth century B.C.E. I.Attracted Persian aristocrats and ruling elites II.Darius regarded Ahura Mazda as supreme God III.Most popular in Iran; followings in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Egypt, and more II.Religions of salvation in a cosmopolitan society

33 I.l Confucius I.Educator and political advisor II.Sayings were compiled in the Analects by his disciples I.Confucian ideas I.Fundamentally moral and ethical in character II.Thoroughly practical: how to restore political and social order III.Concentrated on formation of junzi--"superior individuals" IV.Edited and compiled the Zhou classics for his disciples to study II.Key Confucian values I.Ren--a sense of humanity, kindness, benevolence II.Li--a sense of propriety, courtesy, respect, deference to elders III.Xiao--filial piety, familial obligation IV.Cultivate personal morality and junzi for bringing order to China III.Mencius ( B.C.E.), spokesman for the Confucian school I.Believed in the goodness of human nature (ren) II.Advocated government by benevolence and humanity IV.Xunzi ( B.C.E.) had a less positive view of human nature I.Believed that humans selfishly pursue own interests II.Preferred harsh social discipline to bring order to society III.Advocated moral education and good public behavior

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35 I.Preferred philosophical reflection and introspection, a life in harmony with nature II.Laozi, founder of Daoism, allegedly wrote the Daodejing (Classic of the Way and of Virtue) III.Zhuangzi (compendium of Daoist philosophy) IV.The Dao--the way of nature, the way of the cosmos I.Elusive concept: an eternal principle governing all the workings of the world II.Dao is passive and yielding, does nothing yet accomplishes everything III.Humans should tailor their behavior to the passive and yielding nature of the Dao IV.Ambition and activism had only brought the world to chaos V.Doctrine of wuwei: disengagement from worldly affairs, simple life VI.Advocated small, self-sufficient communities V.Political implications: served as counterbalance to Confucian activism

36 I.The doctrine of practical and efficient statecraft I.No concern with ethics and morality II.No concern with the principles governing nature II.Shang Yang (ca B.C.E.), chief minister of Qin and Legalist writer III.Han Feizi (ca B.C.E.) synthesized Legalist ideas in essays IV.Legalist doctrine I.The state's strength was in agriculture and military force II.Discouraged commerce, education, and the arts III.Harnessing self-interest of the people for the needs of the state IV.Called for harsh penalties even for minor infractions V.Advocated collective responsibility before the law VI.Not popular among Chinese, but practical; put end to Period of Warring States

37 I.Qin, Located in west China, adopted Legalist policies I.Encouraged agriculture, resulted in strong economy II.Organized a powerful army equipped with iron weapons III.Conquered other states and unified China in 221 B.C.E. II.The first emperor was Qin Shihuangdi (221 B.C.E.) I.Established centralized imperial rule II.Project of connecting and extending the Great Wall III.Buried 460 scholars alive because of their criticism against the Qin IV.Burned all books except some with utilitarian value III.Policies of centralization I.Standardization of laws, currencies, weights, measures II.Standardization of scripts IV.Tomb of the First Emperor, who died 210 B.C.E. I.Tomb was underground palace with army of life-size terra-cotta figures II.Excavation of the tomb since 1974 V.The collapse of the Qin dynasty I.Massive public works generated tremendous ill will among the people II.Waves of rebels overwhelmed the Qin court in 207 B.C.E. III.Short-lived dynasty, but left deep marks in Chinese history

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39 I.Liu Bang; persistent and methodical; by 206 B.C.E. restored order II.Early Han policies I.Sought a middle way between Zhou decentralization and Qin overcentralization II.Han Wudi, the Martial Emperor (reigned B.C.E.), emphasized centralization and expansion III.Han centralization; adopted Legalist policies I.Built an enormous bureaucracy to rule the empire II.Continued to build roads and canals III.Levied taxes on agriculture, trade, and craft industries IV.Imperial monopolies on production of iron and salt V.Established Confucian educational system for training bureaucrats IV.Han imperial expansion I.Invaded and colonized northern Vietnam and Korea II.Han organized vast armies to invade Xiongnu territory (nomads from steppes) III.Han enjoyed uncontested hegemony in east and central Asia

40 I. Productivity and prosperity during the Former Han I.Patriarchal social structure I.Women's subordination; Ban Zhao's Admonitions for Women II.Children obey and honor parents II.Vast majority of population were cultivators III.Iron metallurgy: farming tools, utensils, and weapons IV.Silk textiles; sericulture spread all over China during the Han V.Paper production; replaced silk and bamboo as writing material VI.Population growth: twenty million to sixty million from 220 B.C.E. to 9 C.E. II.Economic and social difficulties I.Expeditions consumed the empire's surplus I.Raised taxes and confiscated land of some wealthy individuals II.Taxes and land confiscations discouraged investment in manufacture and trade II.Social tensions, caused by stratification between the poor and rich III.The reign of Wang Mang (9-23 C.E.) I.Land reforms by the "socialist emperor" II.Overthrown by revolts, 23 C.E. III.The later Han dynasty ( C.E.) I.Yellow Turban Uprising: revolt due to problems of land distribution II.Collapse of the Han I.Factions at court paralyzed the central government II.Han empire dissolved; China was divided into regional kingdoms

41 I.The Mauryan dynasty and the temporary unification of India I.Magadha kingdom filled power vacuum left by withdrawal of Alexander of Macedon II.Chandragupta Maurya began conquest in 320s B.C.E. I.Founded Maurya dynasty stretching from Bactria to Ganges II.Kautala's advice manual, Arthashastra, outlined administrative methods III.Ashoka Maurya (reigned B.C.E.)--peak of empire I.Conquered the kingdom of Kalinga, 260 B.C.E. II.Ruled through tightly organized bureaucracy III.Established capital at Pataliputra IV.Policies were written on rocks or pillars V.Empire declined after his death because of financial problems II.The revival of empire under the Guptas I.The Gupta dynasty, founded by Chandra Gupta ( C.E.) I.Smaller and more decentralized than Maurya II.Invasion of White Huns weakened the empire III.After the fifth century C.E., Gupta dynasty continued in name only IV.Large regional kingdoms dominated political life in India

42 I.Jainism and the challenge to the established cultural order I.Vardhamana Mahavira (Jina) founded Jain religion in 5 th century B.C.E. II.Jainist doctrine and ethics I.Inspired by the Upanishads: everything in universe has a soul II.Striving to purify one's selfish behavior to attain a state of bliss III.Principle of ahimsa, nonviolence toward all living things IV.Too demanding, not a practical alternative to the cult of the brahmans III.Appeal of Jainism I.Social implication: individual souls equally participated in ultimate reality II.Jains did not recognize social hierarchies of caste and jati

43 I.Siddhartha Gautama ( B.C.E.) became the Buddha I.Gave up his comfortable life to search for cause of suffering II.Received enlightenment under the bo tree III.First sermon about 528 B.C.E. at the Deer Park of Sarnath IV.Organized followers into a community of monks II.Buddhist doctrine: the dharma I.The Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path are the way to end suffering II.Suffering is caused by desire III.Religious goal: personal salvation, or nirvana, a state of perfect spiritual independence III.Appeal of Buddhism I.Appealed strongly to members of lower castes because it did not recognize social hierarchies of castes and jati II.Was less demanding than Jainism, which made it more popular III.Used vernacular tongues, not Sanskrit IV.Holy sites venerated by pilgrims V.The monastic organizations--extremely efficient at spreading the Buddhist message and winning converts to the faith IV.Ashoka converted and became important patron of Buddhism

44 I.Early Buddhism made heavy demands on individuals II.Development of Buddhism between 3 rd century B.C.E. and 1 st century C.E. I.Buddha became a god II.The notion of boddhisatva--"an enlightened being" III.Monasteries began to accept gifts from wealthy individuals IV.These changes became known as Mahayana Buddhism V.Educational institutions (like Nalanda) promoted new faith

45 I.The epics Mahabharata, a secular poem revised by brahman scholars to honor the god Vishnu, the preserver of the world Ramayana, a secular story of Rama and Sita, was changed into a Hindu story II.The Bhagavad Gita I.A short poetic work: dialogue between Vishnu and warrior II.Illustrated expectations of Hinduism and promise of salvation III.Hindu ethics I.Achieve salvation through meeting caste responsibilities II.Lead honorable lives in the world IV.Hinduism gradually replaced Buddhism in India

46 I.Minoan and Mycenaean Societies I.Minoan society arose on the island of Crete, late 3 third millennium B.C.E. I.Between 2200 and 1450 B.C.E., was the center of Mediterranean commerce II.Received early influences from Phoenicia and Egypt III.Untranslated form of writing, Linear A, was used IV.By 1100 B.C.E., Crete fell under foreign domination II.Mycenaean society: named after important city, Mycenae I.Indo-European immigrants settled in Greece, 2000 B.C.E. II.Adapted Minoan Linear A into their script, Linear B III.Stone fortresses in the Peloponnesus (southern Greece) protected agricultural settlements IV.Overpowered Minoan society and expanded to Anatolia, Sicily, and Italy III.Chaos in the eastern Mediterranean after Trojan War (1200 B.C.E.)

47 I.The world of the polis gradually emerged in Greece I.Sparta began to extend control during eighth and seventh centuries B.C.E. I.Reduced the neighboring peoples to the status of helots, or semi-free servants II.Maintained domination by a powerful military machine II.Spartan society I.Discouraged social distinction, observed austere lifestyle II.Distinction was drawn by prowess, discipline, and military talent III.Athens gradually broadened base of political participation I.Solon sought to negotiate order by democratic principles II.Citizenship was open to free adult males, not to foreigners, slaves, and women IV.Athenian society I.Maritime trade brought about prosperity to Attica, the region of Athens II.Aristocratic landowners were primary beneficiaries III.Class tension became intensified in the sixth century B.C.E. V.Pericles (ca B.C.E.), most popular democratic leader of Athens

48 I.Greek colonization I.Greeks founded more than four hundred colonies I.Facilitated trade among Mediterranean lands and people II.Spread of Greek language and cultural traditions III.Stimulated development of surrounding areas II.Conflict with Persia and its results I.The Persian War ( B.C.E.) I.Greek cities on Ionian coast revolted against Persia, 500 B.C.E. II.Battle of Marathon, 490 B.C.E., is decisive victory for Athens III.Xerxes tried again to seize Athens; his navy lost battle of Salamis (480 B.C.E.) IV.Persian army retreated back to Anatolia (479 B.C.E.) II.The Delian League I.Military and financial alliance among Greek poleis against Persian threat II.When Persian threat subsided, poleis, other than Athens, no longer wanted to make contributions III.The Peloponnesian War ( B.C.E.) I.Tensions led to two armed camps, under leadership of Athens and Sparta II.Unconditional surrender of Athens, 404 B.C.E. III.The Macedonians and the coming of empire I.The kingdom of Macedon, a frontier state north of peninsular Greece II.Philip of Macedon (reigned B.C.E.) brought Greece under control III.Alexander of Macedon succeeds Philip at age twenty and begins conquests I.By 331 B.C.E., controlled Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia II.Invaded Persian homeland and burned Persepolis, 331 B.C.E. III.Crossed Indus River by 327 B.C.E., army refused to go farther IV.Died in 323 B.C.E. at age of thirty-three

49 I.Hellenistic Empires: Alexander's realm was divided into Antigonid, Ptolemaic, Seleucid I.Antigonid empire: Greece and Macedon I.Continuous tension between the Antigonid rulers and Greek cities II.Economy of Athens and Corinth flourished again through trade II.The Ptolemaic empire: Egypt--the wealthiest I.The rulers did not interfere in Egyptian society II.Alexandria, capital at mouth of the Nile III.Cultural center: the famous Alexandria Museum and Alexandria Library III.The Seleucid empire: largest, from Bactria to Anatolia I.Greek and Macedonian colonists flocked to Greek cities of the former Persia II.Colonists created a Mediterranean-style urban society III.Bactria withdrew from Seleucids and established independent Greek kingdom

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51 I.Rational thought and philosophy I.The formation of Greek cultural traditions: philosophy based on human reason II.Socrates ( B.C.E.): "An unexamined life is not worth living" I.Encouraged reflection on questions of ethics and morality II.Was condemned to death on charge of corrupting Athenian youths III.Plato ( B.C.E.): A zealous disciple of Socrates I.The theory of Forms or Ideas--world of ideal qualities II.This world is imperfect reflection of world of Forms III.His Republic expressed the ideal of philosophical kings IV.Aristotle ( B.C.E.): Plato's student, but distrusted theory of Forms I.Devised rules of logic to construct powerful arguments II.Philosophers should rely on senses to provide accurate information V.Legacy of Greek philosophy I.Intellectual authorities for European philosophers until seventeenth century II.Intellectual inspiration for Christian and Islamic theologians

52 I.The Etruscans and Rome I.Romulus and Remus: legendary twins rescued by a she-wolf; founded Rome in 753 B.C.E. II.The Etruscans dominated Italy eighth to fifth centuries B.C.E. III.The kingdom of Rome was on the Tiber River II.The Roman republic and its constitution I.Establishment of the republic I.Rome nobility deposed the last Etruscan king in 509 B.C.E. II.Republican constitution included two consuls: civil and military III.Consuls were elected by an assembly dominated by the patricians IV.Senate advised the consuls and ratified major decisions V.Both Senate and consuls represented the interests of the patricians II.Conflicts between patricians and plebeians I.Patricians granted plebeians the tribunes II.Tribunes' power to intervene and veto decisions III.Plebeians' tribunes dominated Roman politics, early third century B.C.E. III.The expansion of the republic I.Rome consolidated its position in Italy, fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E. II.Conflict with Carthage (Punic Wars) and Hellenistic realms III.Rome became preeminent power in eastern and western Mediterranean

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54 I.Epidemic diseases I.Common epidemics in Rome and China: smallpox, measles, bubonic plague II.It was very easily spread along the Silk Road because of trade at ports and docks III.Roman empire: population dropped by a quarter from the first to tenth century C.E. IV.China: population dropped by a quarter from the first to seventh century C.E. II.Effects of epidemic diseases I.Both Chinese and Roman economies contracted II.Small regional economies emerged III.Epidemics weakened Han and Roman empires

55 I.Internal decay in the Roman empire I.The barracks emperors: series of generals seizing throne ( C.E. II.The emperor Diocletian ( C.E.) I.Divided the empire into two administrative districts II.A co-emperor ruled each district with the aid of a powerful lieutenant III.The emperor Constantine and new capital Constantinople II.Germanic invasions and the fall of the western Roman empire I.Germanic migrations from northern Europe to eastern and northern part of Roman empire I.Visigoths--settled agriculturalists; adopted Roman law and Christianity II.Roman authorities kept Germanic peoples on the borders as a buffer II.The Huns under Attila attacked Europe mid-fifth century C.E. III.The collapse of the western Roman empire I.Under the Huns' pressure, Germanic peoples streamed into the Roman empire II.Established settlements in Italy, Gaul, Spain, Britain, and north Africa III.Germanic general Odovacer deposed the Roman emperor, 476 C.E. IV.Imperial authority survived in the eastern half of the empire

56 I.Imperial expansion and domestic problems I.The Gracchi brothers supported land redistribution; both were assassinated II.Military commanders recruited rural and urban poor--intensely loyal armies I.Gaius Marius: general who advocated land redistribution II.Conservative aristocratic class supported general Lucius Cornelius Sulla III.Civil war II.The foundation of empire I.Julius Caesar: very popular social reformer and conqueror (Gaul) I.Seized Rome in 49 B.C.E. II.Claimed the title "dictator for life," 46 B.C.E. III.Social reforms and centralized control IV.Assassinated in 44 B.C.E. II.Octavion brought civil conflict to an end I.Senate bestowed title "Augustus", 27 B.C.E. II.Monarchy disguised as a republic III.Created a new standing army under his control IV.The imperial institutions began to take root III.Continuing expansion and integration of the empire I.Roman expansion into Mediterranean basin, western Europe, down Nile to Kush II.Pax romana, or Roman Peace, for two and a half centuries III.Well-engineered Roman roads; postal system IV.Roman law--tradition: twelve tables (450 B.C.E.)

57 I.Greek philosophy and religions of salvation I.Roman deities: gods, goddesses, and household gods II.Greek influence--Stoicism I.Appealed to Roman intellectuals II.Cicero ( B.C.E.) persuasive orator and writer on Stoicism III.Religions of salvation gave sense of purpose and promised afterlife I.Roman roads served as highways for religious spread II.Mithraism was popular with Roman soldiers--men only III.Cult of Isis very popular II.Judaism and early Christianity I.Monotheistic Jews considered state cults to be blasphemy II.The Essenes, sect of Judaism; Dead Sea Scrolls III.Jesus of Nazareth I.Charismatic Jewish teacher, taught devotion to God and love for human beings II.Attracted large crowds through his wisdom and miraculous powers III.The teaching "the kingdom of God is at hand" alarmed the Romans IV.Crucifixion in early 30s C.E. V.Became "Christ," or "the anointed one" IV.The New Testament and the Old Testament became the holy book of Christianity V.Paul of Tarsus was principle figure in spread of Christianity VI.Rapid growth of early Christianity I.Strong appeal to lower classes, urban population, and women II.Became the most influential faith in the Mediterranean by the third century C.E.

58 I.Trade networks of the Hellenistic era I.Important developments of the classical era that reduced risks I.Rulers invested in constructing roads and bridges II.Large empires expanded until borders were closer II.Trade networks of the Hellenistic world I.Exchanges between India/Bactria in east and Mediterranean basin in west II.Ptolemies learned about the monsoon system in Indian Ocean III.Maritime trade included East Africa--Rhapta II.The silk roads I.Trade routes I.Overland trade routes linked China to Roman empire II.Sea lanes joined Asia, Africa, and Mediterranean basin into one network II.Trade goods I.Silk and spices traveled west II.Central Asia produced large horses and jade, sold in China III.Roman empire provided glassware, jewelry, artworks, perfumes, textiles III.The organization of long-distance trade I.Merchants of different regions handled long-distance trade in stages II.On the seas, long-distance trade was dominated by different empires

59 I.Buddhism in central Asia and China I.First present in oasis towns of central Asia along silk roads and further spread to steppe lands II.Foreign merchants as Buddhists in China, first century B.C.E. III.Popularity of monasteries and missionaries, fifth century C.E. II.The spread of Christianity I.Christianity in the Mediterranean basin I.Christian communities flourished in Mediterranean basin by late third century C.E. II.Christianity in Southwest Asia follows the trade routes I.Sizable communities in Mesopotamia and Iran, second century C.E. II.Sizable number of converts in southwest Asia until the seventh century C.E. III.Their ascetic practices influenced Christian practices in the Roman empire IV.Nestorians emphasized human nature of Jesus, fifth century C.E. V.Nestorian communities in central Asia, India, and China by seventh century C.E. III.Buddhism and Hinduism in Southeast Asia

60 I.Best example of religion spread on silk roads I.Mani and Manichaeism I.Prophet Mani, a Zoroastrian, drew influence from Christianity and Buddhism II.Dualism: perceived a cosmic struggle between light and darkness, good and evil III.Offered means to achieve personal salvation IV.Ascetic lifestyle and high ethical standards V.Differentiation between the "elect" and the "hearers" II.Spread of Manichaeism; appealed to merchants I.Attracted converts first in Mesopotamia and east Mediterranean region II.Appeared in all large cities of Roman empire, third century C.E. III.Persecuted by Sasanids and Romans but survived in central Asia


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