Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Early Complex Societies Evolve into Classical Societies Objectives for Todays Discussion/Lecture: What are the characteristics of classical societies?

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Early Complex Societies Evolve into Classical Societies Objectives for Todays Discussion/Lecture: What are the characteristics of classical societies?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Complex Societies Evolve into Classical Societies Objectives for Todays Discussion/Lecture: What are the characteristics of classical societies? What were the problems faced by classical societies? What benefits did classical societies experience? What were the key developments of the Persian empire? (SPRITE chart) What were the key changes and continuities that occurred during the unification of China? (COT SPRITE chart)

2 Formation of Classical Societies Approximately 1000 BCE early societies emerged and Achieved high degrees of internal organization Extended their authority over extremely large regions Elaborated influential cultural traditions

3 Classical Societies: A Look at Persia What problems did classical societies like Persia face? Classical Persian society began to take shape during the sixth century B.C.E. when rulers of the province of Persia in southwestern Iran embarked on a series of conquests that resulted in the formation of an enormous empire.

4 Problems of Classical Societies Difficult to oversee vast territories without advanced technologies of transportation and communication. Military challenges arose from within classical societies themselves in the form of rebellion, civil war, or conflict. External threats came from nomadic and migratory people who sought to share in the wealth. Maintenance of equitable distribution of land and wealth

5 What benefits did classical societies like Persia experience?

6 Benefits of Classical Societies Increased trade encouraged economic integration within the societies. Establishment of regular commerce between peoples of different societies and cultural regions. Generated sophisticated cultural and religious traditions.

7 Origins: Persia Around 1000 BCE the Medes and the Persians migrated from central Asia to Persia (modern-day Iran). They were part of the larger Indo-European migration.

8 Origins of Persia The Persians were mostly pastoralists but they did practice limited agriculture. When the Assyrian and Babylonan empires weakened in the 6 th century BCE, the Medes and Persians embarked on a successful imperial venture. –Cyrus conquered regions between India and Egypt by 530 B.C.E. –His son, Cambyses completed the conquest by gaining Egypt.

9 Lets Revisit: Who were the Assyrians and the Babylonians?

10 What were the key developments in the Persian Classical Empire? Social: Imperial administration required educated bureaucrats. –Administrators, tax collectors, record keepers, translators –Free classes – artisans, craftsmen, merchants, low ranking civil servants, peasants, landless cultivators. Women worked in the weaving of textiles. –Slaves Political: Centralized government with local administration. The Achaemenid Empire appointed governors to oversee affairs in the various regions.

11 Ruins at Persepolis, the capital established by Darius (520 B.C.E.)

12 Persepolis was located northeast of Shiraz in modern-day Iran

13 What were the key developments in the Persian Classical Empire? Religion: Zoroastrianism emerged from the teachings of Zarathustra. –Good conquers over evil after a conflict. –Omnipotent deity –Judgment resulting in rewards in heaven or punishment in evil. Intellectual: Expansion of empire required educated bureaucrats. Translators were needed to help with diverse languages in the empire. Technology: development of roads, canals, postal stations Economic: Agriculture was the foundation of Persian economy; long distance trade grew rapidly and linked lands from India to Egypt. Development of roads (Persian Royal Road)

14 What were the key SOCIAL changes and continuities that occurred during the unification of China? (COT SPRITE chart) Time Period: 550 B.C.E. to 220 C.E. Beginning of Period: During the 4 th and 3 rd century BCE, Qin state encouraged peasant cultivators to migrate to sparsely populated states and granted them private plots. This boosted agriculture. End of Period: Distinctions between rich and poor hardened. Land became concentrated in the hands of a small, wealthy elite class. (pp. 197, 200) Changes: Poor harvests, high taxes, and debt forced many land owners to sell their property. Many people were forced to sell themselves into slavery. By the end of the first century BCE, land had accumulated in the hands of a small number of individuals who owned estates. Problems with banditry and rebellion (p. 200) Continuities: Patriarchal households average 5 people, emphasis on womens subordination (Ban Zhaos Admonitions for Women) and childrens obedience (p. 199) Reasons for Changes/Continuities: Han Wudi raised taxes and confiscated land and personal property.

15 What were the key changes and continuities that occurred during the unification of China? (COT SPRITE chart) Political: Time Period: 550 B.C.E. to 220 C.E. Beginning of Period: End of Period: Changes: Continuities: Reasons for Changes/Continuities

16 What were the key changes and continuities that occurred during the unification of China? (COT SPRITE chart) Religious: Time Period: 550 B.C.E. to 220 C.E. Beginning of Period: End of Period: Changes: Continuities: Reasons for Changes/Continuities

17 What were the key changes and continuities that occurred during the unification of China? (COT SPRITE chart) Intellectual: Time Period: 550 B.C.E. to 220 C.E. Beginning of Period: End of Period: Changes: Continuities: Reasons for Changes/Continuities

18 What were the key changes and continuities that occurred during the unification of China? (COT SPRITE chart) Technology: Time Period: 550 B.C.E. to 220 C.E. Beginning of Period: End of Period: Changes: Continuities: Reasons for Changes/Continuities

19 What were the key changes and continuities that occurred during the unification of China? (COT SPRITE chart) Economic: Time Period: 550 B.C.E. to 220 C.E. Beginning of Period: End of Period: Changes: Continuities: Reasons for Changes/Continuities


Download ppt "Early Complex Societies Evolve into Classical Societies Objectives for Todays Discussion/Lecture: What are the characteristics of classical societies?"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google