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Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Empires of Persia 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Empires of Persia 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Empires of Persia 1

2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.  Contemporary Iran  Four major dynasties  Achaemenids ( BCE)  Seleucids ( BCE)  Parthians (247 BCE-224 CE)  Sasanids ( CE) 2

3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.  Migration of Medes and Persians from central Asia, before 1000 BCE  Indo-Europeans  Capitalized on weakening Assyrian and Babylonian empires  Cyrus (r BCE) founder of dynasty  “Cyrus the Shepherd”  Peak under Darius (r BCE)  Ruled Indus to the Aegean  Capital Persepolis 3

4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 4

5 Early Leaders  Cyrus the Great 5

6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Early Leaders  Cyrus the Great  Ruled 550 – 539 B.C. 6

7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Early Leaders  Cyrus the Great  Ruled 550 – 539 B.C.  Commanded an empire over 2000 miles long 7

8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Early Leaders  Cyrus the Great  Ruled 550 – 539 B.C.  Commanded an empire over 2000 miles long  Honored local customs of conquered people 8

9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 9

10 Early Leaders  Cambyses II 10

11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Early Leaders  Cambyses II  Made King of Babylon by Cyrus 11

12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Early Leaders  Cambyses II  Made King of Babylon by Cyrus  Expands empire into Egypt 12

13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Early Leaders  Darius  Commander of the Ten Thousand Immortals 13

14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Early Leaders  Darius  Commander of the Ten Thousand Immortals  Expanded empire into India 14

15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Early Leaders  Darius  Commander of the Ten Thousand Immortals  Expanded empire into India  Creates efficient government to rule the government 15

16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Ruler (Darius) Rules with absolute power Satrap 1 - Persian Governor Military Leader Tax Collector Satrap 1 - Persian Governor Military Leader Tax Collector Satrap 1 - Persian Governor Military Leader Tax Collector 16

17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Ruler (Darius) Rules with absolute power Satrap 1 - Persian Governor Military Leader Tax Collector Local Ruler Satrap 2 - Persian Governor Military Leader Tax Collector Local Ruler Satrap 3 - Persian Governor Military Leader Tax Collector Local Ruler 17

18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.  23 Administrative divisions  Satraps Persian, but staff principally local  System of spies, surprise audits  Minimized possibilities of local rebellion  Standardized currency for taxation purposes  Massive road building, courier services 18

19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.  Royal Road  Royal Couriers  Traveler Service 19

20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.  Standardized  Taxes  Weights and Measures  Laws 20

21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. Social Structure  Ruler  Regional (Clan) Leaders  Imperial Administrators (Bureaucrats)  Tax Collectors  Record Keepers  Artisans, Merchants, Craftsmen, Priests, Land Owners  Laborers  Slaves 21

22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.  Qanat: System of underground canals  Avoided excessive loss to evaporation  Extensive road-building  Persian Royal Road  1,600 miles, some of it paved  Courier service 22

23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.  Policy of toleration under Cyrus, Darius  Rebuilding of Temple in Jerusalem  Xerxes ( BCE) attempts to impose Persian stamp on satrapies  Increasing public discontent 23

24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.  Rebellious Greeks in Ionia  Peninsular Greeks join in  Persians defeated at Marathon (490 BCE), retreated  Alexander the Great conquers the Achaemenid Empire ( BCE) 24

25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.  Alexander the Great dies suddenly  Generals divide empire, best part goes to Seleucus (r BCE)  Attacked by rebellion in India, invasion of Parthians 25

26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 26

27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.  Seminomadic Parthians drive Seleucus out of Iran  Federated governmental structure  Especially strong cavalry  Weakened by ongoing wars with Romans  Fell to internal rebellion 27

28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.  Claimed descent from Achaemenids  Continual conflicts with Rome, Byzantium in the west, Kush in the east  Overwhelmed by Arab conquest in 651  Persian administration and culture absorbed into local Islamic culture 28

29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 29

30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.  Early steppe traditions  Warriors, priests, peasants  Family/clan kinship very important  Creation of bureaucrat class with Empire  Tax collectors  Record keepers  translators 30

31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.  Prisoners of war, conquered populations  Debtors  Children, spouses also sold into slavery  Principally domestic servitude  Some agricultural labor, public works 31

32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.  Several areas exceptionally fertile  Long-distance trade benefits from Persian road- building  Goods from India especially valued 32

33 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.  Early Aryan influences on Persian religious traditions  Zarathustra (late 7 th -early 6 th c. BCE)  Prophet of Ahura Mazda, against Angra Mainu  Priests of Zarathustra known as Magi  Oral teachings until Sasanid period composed Gathas 33

34 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.  Under Alexander: Massacre of Magi, burning Zoroastrian temples  Weak Parthian support  Major revival under Sasanids, persecution of non- Zoroastrians  Discrimination under Islam 34

35 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.  Major Mesopotamian communities of Jews  Composition of the Talmud, c. 500 CE  “constitution of Judaism”  Buddhism, Christianity and Manichaeism also survived 35


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