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Nomenclature A Systematic Approach to Naming Chemical Compounds.

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Presentation on theme: "Nomenclature A Systematic Approach to Naming Chemical Compounds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nomenclature A Systematic Approach to Naming Chemical Compounds

2 Nomenclature II Ternary Ionic Compounds Binary and Ternary Acids

3 Ternary Ionic Compounds Metal cation with polyatomic anion Na 2 SO 4 sodium Polyatomic cation with polyatomic anion NH 4 NO 3 ammonium Polyatomic cation with monatomic anion NH 4 Clammonium >2 elementscation with an anion sodium sulfateNa 2 SO 4 Metal cation with polyatomic anion sodium sulfate Polyatomic cation with monatomic anion NH 4 Cl ammonium chloride Polyatomic cation with polyatomic anion NH 4 NO 3 ammonium nitrate Polyatomic cation with polyatomic anion NH 4 NO 3 ammonium nitrate Polyatomic cation with polyatomic anion NH 4 NO 3

4 Some Common Polyatomic Anions nitrate chlorate carbonate sulfate phosphate NO 3 - ClO 3 - CO 3 2- SO 4 2- PO 4 3-

5 nitrate chlorate carbonate sulfate phosphate NO 3 - ClO 3 - CO 3 2- SO 4 2- PO 4 3- nitrate chlorate carbonate sulfate phosphate NO 3 - ClO 3 - CO 3 2- SO 4 2- PO 4 3-

6 Some Common Polyatomic Anions nitrate chlorate carbonate sulfate phosphate NO 3 - ClO 3 - CO 3 2- SO 4 2- PO 4 3- nitrite chlorite sulfite phosphite NO 2 - ClO 2 - SO 3 2- PO 3 3- Notice that renaming ‘-ate’ to ‘-ite’ simply reduces the number of oxygen atoms but not ionic charge

7 Some Common Polyatomic Anions nitrate chlorate carbonate sulfate phosphate NO 3 - ClO 3 - CO 3 2- SO 4 2- PO 4 3- nitrite chlorite sulfite phosphite NO 2 - ClO 2 - SO 3 2- PO 3 3- Notice that renaming ‘-ate’ to ‘-ite’ simply reduces the number of oxygen atoms but not ionic charge Some polyatomic anions can have even 1 less oxygen

8 Some Common Polyatomic Anions nitrate chlorate carbonate sulfate phosphate NO 3 - ClO 3 - CO 3 2- SO 4 2- PO 4 3- nitrite chlorite sulfite phosphite NO 2 - ClO 2 - SO 3 2- PO 3 3- Some polyatomic anions can have even 1 less oxygen nitrate chlorate carbonate sulfate phosphate NO 3 - ClO 3 - CO 3 2- SO 4 2- PO 4 3- nitrite chlorite sulfite phosphite NO 2 - ClO 2 - SO 3 2- PO 3 3-

9 Some Common Polyatomic Anions nitrate chlorate carbonate sulfate phosphate NO 3 - ClO 3 - CO 3 2- SO 4 2- PO 4 3- nitrite chlorite sulfite phosphite NO 2 - ClO 2 - SO 3 2- PO 3 3- hypochlorite ClO - Some polyatomic anions can have even 1 more oxygen perchlorateClO 4 - The halo-oxo-anions of Br and I have identical naming schemes

10 chlorate ClO 3 - chlorite ClO 2 - hypochlorite ClO - perchlorateClO 4 - iodate IO 3 - iodite IO 2 - hypoiodite IO - periodateIO 4 - chlorate ClO 3 - chlorite ClO 2 - hypochlorite ClO - perchlorateClO 4 - bromate BrO 3 - bromite BrO 2 - hypobromite BrO - perbromateBrO 4 - Some Common Polyatomic Anions nitrate carbonate sulfate phosphate NO 3 - CO 3 2- SO 4 2- PO 4 3- nitrite sulfite phosphite NO 2 - SO 3 2- PO 3 3- The halo-oxo-anions of Br and I have identical naming schemes

11 SO 4 2- SO 4 Ternary Ionic Compounds Examples Aluminum sulfate Al 3+ Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Al ?(3+) + ?(2-) = 0 2(3+) + 3(2-) = 0 Write the chemical formula of aluminum sulfate

12 Ternary Ionic Compounds Examples Cu(NO 3 ) 2 Write the systematic name for Cu(NO 3 ) 2 copper(II) nitrate Cu ?+ NO 3 - (?+) + 2(-1) = 0 (2+) + 2(-1) = 0 Cu ?+ Cu 2+ Copper is a transition element so use Stock convention for naming the metal ion:

13 Some Common Polyatomic Anions A Few Exceptions hydroxide cyanide azide carbide OH - CN - N 3 - C 2 2- Despite being polyatomic anions, the rules of nomenclature for monoatomic ions apply.

14 Binary and Ternary Acids A binary acid is molecular compound which dissociates into hydrogen ion and a monoatomic anion in aqueous solution. A ternary acid is molecular compound which is a combination of hydrogen ion and a polyatomic anion.

15 Binary Acids Prefix the root name of the anion with ‘hydro’ Transform the suffix of the anion from ‘-ide’ to ‘-ic’ Add the word ‘acid’ HCl (g) hydrogen chloride HCl (aq) hydrochloric acid HI (g) hydrogen iodide HI (aq) hydroiodic acid EXAMPLES Read the formula carefully!

16 Binary Acids An Exception HCN (g) hydrogen cyanide HCN (aq) hydrocyanic acid Even though it is not a binary acid, the ‘-ide’ ending of the anion requires application of the binary acid rule. Read the molecular name carefully

17 Ternary Acids Transform the suffix of the anion from ‘-ate’ to ‘-ic’ -or- Transform the suffix of the anion from ‘-ite’ to ‘-ous’ Add the word ‘acid’ Never use the prefix ‘hydro’ for ternary acids HNO 3 nitric acid HNO 2 nitrous acid EXAMPLES

18 Ternary Acids Na 2 SO 4 sodium sulfate NaHSO 4 sodium hydrogen sulfate EXAMPLE H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid The name does not include ‘acid’ until the anion’s ionic charge is completely balanced by hydrogen ion.

19 sulfur hexafluoride Review of Basic Nomenclature Binary Ionic Compounds BaObarium oxideCuCl 2 copper(II) chloride Binary Molecular Compounds SF 6 N2O4N2O4 dinitrogen tetraoxide Ternary Ionic Compounds Al(NO 3 ) 3 aluminum nitrateMnSO 4 manganese(II) sulfate Acids HClO 4 perchloric acidHCl (aq) hydrochloric acid


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