Presentation on theme: "A Systematic Approach to Naming Chemical Compounds"— Presentation transcript:
1 A Systematic Approach to Naming Chemical Compounds NomenclatureA Systematic Approach to Naming Chemical Compounds
2 Ternary Ionic Compounds Binary and Ternary Acids Nomenclature IITernary Ionic CompoundsBinary and Ternary Acids
3 Ternary Ionic Compounds >2 elementscation with an anionMetal cation with polyatomic anionMetal cation with polyatomic anionMetal cation with polyatomic anionMetal cation with polyatomic anionNa2SO4Na2SO4Na2SO4Na2SO4sodium sulfatesodiumsodium sulfatePolyatomic cation with monatomic anionPolyatomic cation with monatomic anionPolyatomic cation with monatomic anionPolyatomic cation with monatomic anionNH4ClNH4ClNH4ClNH4Clammonium chlorideammonium chlorideammoniumPolyatomic cation with polyatomic anionPolyatomic cation with polyatomic anionPolyatomic cation with polyatomic anionPolyatomic cation with polyatomic anionNH4NO3NH4NO3NH4NO3NH4NO3ammoniumammonium nitrateammonium nitrate
4 Some Common Polyatomic Anions nitrateNO3-chlorateClO3-carbonateCO32-sulfateSO42-phosphatePO43-
5 Some Common Polyatomic Anions nitratechloratecarbonatesulfatephosphateNO3-ClO3-CO32-SO42-PO43-nitratechloratecarbonatesulfatephosphateNO3-ClO3-CO32-SO42-PO43-
6 Some Common Polyatomic Anions nitratechloratecarbonatesulfatephosphateNO3-ClO3-CO32-SO42-PO43-nitriteNO2-chloriteClO2-sulfiteSO32-phosphitePO33-Notice that renaming ‘-ate’ to ‘-ite’ simply reduces the number of oxygen atoms but not ionic charge
7 Some Common Polyatomic Anions Some polyatomic anions can have even 1 less oxygennitratechloratecarbonatesulfatephosphateNO3-ClO3-CO32-SO42-PO43-nitriteNO2-chloriteClO2-sulfiteSO32-phosphitePO33-Notice that renaming ‘-ate’ to ‘-ite’ simply reduces the number of oxygen atoms but not ionic charge
8 Some Common Polyatomic Anions Some polyatomic anions can have even 1 less oxygennitratechloratecarbonatesulfatephosphateNO3-ClO3-CO32-SO42-PO43-nitritechloritesulfitephosphiteNO2-ClO2-SO32-PO33-nitratechloratecarbonatesulfatephosphateNO3-ClO3-CO32-SO42-PO43-nitritechloritesulfitephosphiteNO2-ClO2-SO32-PO33-
9 Some Common Polyatomic Anions Some polyatomic anions can have even 1 more oxygenNO3-nitriteNO2-nitratechlorateClO3-chloriteClO2-hypochloriteClO-perchlorateClO4-carbonateCO32-sulfateSO42-sulfiteSO32-phosphatePO43-phosphitePO33-The halo-oxo-anions of Br and I have identical naming schemes
10 Some Common Polyatomic Anions nitrateNO3-nitriteNO2-chlorateClO3-chloriteClO2-hypochloriteClO-perchlorateClO4-chlorateClO3-chloriteClO2-hypochloriteClO-perchlorateClO4-iodateIO3-ioditeIO2-hypoioditeIO-periodateIO4-bromateBrO3-bromiteBrO2-hypobromiteBrO-perbromateBrO4-carbonateCO32-sulfateSO42-sulfiteSO32-phosphatePO43-phosphitePO33-The halo-oxo-anions of Br and I have identical naming schemes
11 Ternary Ionic Compounds Examples Write the chemical formula of aluminum sulfateAluminum sulfateAlSO4Al3+SO42-2(3+) (2-) = 0?(3+) ?(2-) = 0?(3+) ?(2-) = 0Al2(SO4)3
12 Ternary Ionic Compounds Examples Write the systematic name for Cu(NO3)2Cu(NO3)2(?+) (-1) = 0(2+) (-1) = 0(?+) (-1) = 0Cu2+Cu?+Cu?+NO3-Copper is a transition element so use Stock convention for naming the metal ion:copper(II) nitrate
13 Some Common Polyatomic Anions A Few Exceptions hydroxideOH-cyanideCN-azideN3-carbideC22-Despite being polyatomic anions, the rules of nomenclature for monoatomic ions apply.
14 Binary and Ternary Acids A binary acid is molecular compound which dissociates into hydrogen ion and a monoatomic anion in aqueous solution.A ternary acid is molecular compound which is a combination of hydrogen ion and a polyatomic anion.
15 Binary Acids Prefix the root name of the anion with ‘hydro’ Transform the suffix of the anion from ‘-ide’ to ‘-ic’Add the word ‘acid’EXAMPLESHCl(g)Read the formula carefully!hydrogen chlorideHCl(aq)hydrochloric acidHI(g)hydrogen iodideHI(aq)hydroiodic acid
16 Binary Acids An Exception HCN(g)hydrogen cyanideHCN(aq)hydrocyanic acidRead the molecular name carefullyEven though it is not a binary acid, the ‘-ide’ ending of the anion requires application of the binary acid rule.
17 Ternary AcidsTransform the suffix of the anion from ‘-ate’ to ‘-ic’ -or-Transform the suffix of the anion from ‘-ite’ to ‘-ous’Add the word ‘acid’Never use the prefix ‘hydro’ for ternary acidsEXAMPLESHNO3nitric acidHNO2nitrous acid
18 Ternary AcidsThe name does not include ‘acid’ until the anion’s ionic charge is completely balanced by hydrogen ion.EXAMPLENa2SO4sodium sulfateNaHSO4sodium hydrogen sulfateH2SO4sulfuric acid
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