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Hydrates Compounds containing Water molecules MgSO 4 7H 2 O Magnesium Sulfate heptahydrate CaSO 4 2H 2 O Calcium Sulfate dihydrate Ba(OH) 2 8H 2 O Barium.

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Presentation on theme: "Hydrates Compounds containing Water molecules MgSO 4 7H 2 O Magnesium Sulfate heptahydrate CaSO 4 2H 2 O Calcium Sulfate dihydrate Ba(OH) 2 8H 2 O Barium."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Hydrates Compounds containing Water molecules MgSO 4 7H 2 O Magnesium Sulfate heptahydrate CaSO 4 2H 2 O Calcium Sulfate dihydrate Ba(OH) 2 8H 2 O Barium Hydroxide octahydrate CuSO 4 5H 2 O Copper II Sulfate pentahydrate Na 2 CO 3 10H 2 O Sodium Carbonate decahydrate

3 Examples of Names and Formulas of Oxoanions and Their Compounds - I KNO 2 Potassium Nitrite BaSO 3 Barium Sulfite Mg(NO 3 ) 2 Magnesium Nitrate Na 2 SO 4 Sodium Sulfate LiClO 4 Lithium Perchlorate Ca(BrO) 2 Calcium Hypobromite NaClO 3 Sodium Chlorate Al(IO 2 ) 3 Aluminum Iodite RbClO 2 Rubidium Chlorite KBrO 3 Potassium Bromate CsClO Cesium Hypochlotite LiIO 4 Lithium Periodate

4 Examples of Names and Formulas of Oxoanions and their Compounds - II Calcium Nitrate Ammonium Sulfite Strontium Sulfate Lithium Nitrite Potassium Hypochlorite Lithium Perbromate Rubidium Chlorate Calcium Iodite Ammonium Chlorite Boron Bromate Sodium Perchlorate Magnesium Hypoiodite

5 Examples of Names and Formulas of Oxoanions and their Compounds - II Calcium Nitrate Ca(NO 3 ) 2 Ammonium Sulfite (NH 4 ) 2 SO 3 Strontium Sulfate SrSO 4 Lithium Nitrite LiNO 2 Potassium Hypochlorite KClO Lithium Perbromate LiBrO 4 Rubidium Chlorate RbClO 3 Calcium Iodite Ca(IO 2 ) 2 Ammonium Chlorite NH 4 ClO 2 Boron Bromate B(BrO 3 ) 3 Sodium Perchlorate NaClO 4 Magnesium Hypoiodite Mg(IO) 2

6 Determining Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions a) BaCl 2 5 H 2 O b) Magnesium Perchlorate c) (NH 4 ) 2 SO 3 d) Calcium Nitrate

7 Determining Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions a) BaCl 2 5 H 2 O Ba +2 is the cation Barium, Cl - is the Chloride anion. There are five water molecules therefore the name is: Barium Chloride Pentahydrate b) Magnesium Perchlorate Magnesium is the Mg +2 cation, and perchlorate is the ClO 4 - anion, therefore we need two perchlorate anions for each Mg cation therefore the formula is: Mg( ClO 4 ) 2 c) (NH 4 ) 2 SO 3 NH 4 + is the ammonium ion, and SO 3 -2 is the sulfite anion, therefore the name is: Ammonium Sulfite d) Calcium Nitrate Calcium is the Ca +2 cation, and nitrate is the NO 3 - anion, therefore the formula is: Ca(NO 3 ) 2

8 Naming Acids 1) Binary acids solutions form when certain gaseous compounds dissolve in water. For example, when gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) dissolves in water, it forms a solution called hydrochloric acid. Prefix hydro- + anion nonmetal root + suffix -ic + the word acid hydrochloric acid 2) Oxoacid names are similar to those of the oxoanions, except for two suffix changes: Anion “-ate” suffix becomes an “-ic” suffix in the acid. Anion “-ite” suffix becomes an “-ous” suffix in the acid. The oxoanion prefixes “hypo-” and “per-” are retained. Thus, BrO 4 - is perbromate, and HBrO 4 is perbromic acid; IO 2 - is iodite, and HIO 2 is iodous acid.

9 Determining Names and Formulas of Anions and Acids Problem: Name the following anions and give the names and formulas of the acid solutions derived from them: a) I - b) BrO 3 - c) SO 3 -2 d) NO 3 - e) CN - Solution: a) I - b) BrO 3 - c) SO 3 -2 d) NO 3 - e) CN -

10 Determining Names and Formulas of Anions and Acids Problem: Name the following anions and give the names and formulas of the acid solutions derived from them: a) I - b) BrO 3 - c) SO 3 -2 d) NO 3 - e) CN - Solution: a) The anion is Iodide; and the acid is Hydroiodic acid, HI b) The anion is Bromate; and the acid is Bromic acid, HBrO 3 c) The anion is Sulfite; and the acid is Sulfurous acid, H 2 SO 3 d) The anion is Nitrate; and the acid is Nitric acid, HNO 3 e) The anion is Cyanide; and the acid is Hydrocyanic acid, HCN

11 Names and Formulas of Binary Covalent Compounds 1) The element with the lower group number in the periodic table is the first word in the name; the element with the higher group number is the second word. (Important exception: When the compound contains oxygen and a halogen, the halogen is named first.) 2) If both elements are in the same group, the one with the higher period number is named first. 3) The second element is named with its root and the suffix “-ide.” 4) Covalent compounds have Greek numerical prefixes (table 2.6) to indicate the number of atoms of each element in the compound. The first word has a prefix only when more than one atom of the element is present; the second word always has a numerical prefix.

12 Determining Names and Formulas of Binary Covalent Compounds Problem: What are the name or chemical formulas of the following chemical compounds: a) Carbon dioxide b) PCl 3 c) Give the name and chemical formula of the compound formed from two P atoms and five O atoms. Solution: a) Carbon dioxide b) PCl 3 c) The compound formed from two P atoms and five O atoms

13 Determining Names and Formulas of Binary Covalent Compounds Problem: What are the name or Chemical formulas of the following Chemical compounds: a) Carbon dioxide b) PCl 3 c) Give the name and chemical formula of the compound formed from two P atoms and five O atoms. Solution: a) The prefix “di-” means “two.” The formula is CO 2 b) P is the symbol for phosphorous; there are three chlorine atoms which require the prefix “tri-.” The name of the compound is: phosphorous trichloride c) P comes first in the name (lower group number). The compound is diphosphorous pentaoxide ( commonly called “phosphorous pentaoxide”)

14 Naming Alkanes Alkanes are hydrocarbons that are called “saturated” hydrocarbons, they contain only single bonds, no multiple bonds ! Alkanes have the general formula --- C n H 2n+2 Each carbon atom has four bonds to others atoms ! The names for alkanes all end in -ane Alkanes are found in three distinct groups: a) Straight chain hydrocarbons b) Branched chain hydrocarbons c) Cyclic hydrocarbons

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16 Calculate the Molecular Mass of Glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6 Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen

17 Calculate the Molecular Mass of Glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6 Carbon 6 x g/mol = amu Hydrogen 12 x g/mol = amu Oxygen 6 x g/mol = amu amu

18 Calculating the Molecular Mass of a Compound Problem: Using the data in the periodic table, calculate the molecular mass of the following compounds: a) Tetraphosphorous decoxide b) Ammonium sulfate Plan: We first write the formula, then multiply the number of atoms (or ions) of each element by its atomic mass, and find the sum. Solution: a) Tetraphosphorous decoxide b) Ammonium sulfate

19 Calculating the Molecular Mass of a Compound Problem: Using the data in the periodic table, calculate the molecular mass of the following compounds: a) Tetraphosphorous decoxide b) Ammonium sulfate Plan: We first write the formula, then multiply the number of atoms (or ions) of each element by its atomic mass, and find the sum. Solution: a) The formula is P 4 O 10. Molecular mass = (4 x atomic mass of P ) +(10 x atomic mass of O ) = ( 4 x amu) + ( 10 x amu) = = amu b) The formula is (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 Molecular mass = ( 2 x atomic mass of N ) + ( 8 x atomic mass of H) + ( 1 x atomic mass of S ) + ( 4 x atomic mass of O) = ( 2 x amu) + ( 8 x amu) + ( 1 x amu) + ( 4 x amu) = amu = amu

20 (Figs. on p. 75)

21 Figs. on p. 75

22 (Figs. on p. 75)

23 Figs. on p. 75

24 Fig.2.25

25 Mixtures Heterogeneous mixtures : has one or more visible boundaries between the components. Homogeneous mixtures : has no visible boundaries because the components are mixed as individual atoms, ions, and molecules. Solutions : A homogeneous mixture is also called a solution. Solutions in water are called aqueous solutions, and are very important in chemistry. Although we normally think of solutions as liquids, they can exist in all three physical states.

26 Separating Mixtures Filtration : Separates components of a mixture based upon differences in particle size. Normally separating a precipitate from a solution, or particles from an air stream. Crystallization : Separation is based upon differences in solubility of components in a mixture. Distillation : separation is based upon differences in volatility. Extraction : Separation is based upon differences in solubility in different solvents (major material). Chromatography : Separation is based upon differences in solubility in a solvent versus a stationary phase.

27 Fig 2D (P 77) Filtration

28 Fig 2E (P 77) Crystallization

29 Fig.2.F

30 Fig.2.G

31 Fig.2.H

32 Fig.2.I

33 Fig.2.26


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