2Compounds containing Water molecules HydratesCompounds containing Water moleculesMgSO4 7H2O Magnesium Sulfate heptahydrateCaSO4 2H2O Calcium Sulfate dihydrateBa(OH)2 8H2O Barium Hydroxide octahydrateCuSO4 5H2O Copper II Sulfate pentahydrateNa2CO H2O Sodium Carbonate decahydrate
3Examples of Names and Formulas of Oxoanions and Their Compounds - I KNO Potassium Nitrite BaSO3 Barium SulfiteMg(NO3)2 Magnesium Nitrate Na2SO4 Sodium SulfateLiClO4 Lithium Perchlorate Ca(BrO)2 Calcium HypobromiteNaClO3 Sodium Chlorate Al(IO2) Aluminum IoditeRbClO2 Rubidium Chlorite KBrO3 Potassium BromateCsClO Cesium Hypochlotite LiIO4 Lithium Periodate
4Examples of Names and Formulas of Oxoanions and their Compounds - II Calcium Nitrate Ammonium SulfiteStrontium Sulfate Lithium NitritePotassium Hypochlorite Lithium PerbromateRubidium Chlorate Calcium IoditeAmmonium Chlorite Boron BromateSodium Perchlorate Magnesium Hypoiodite
5Examples of Names and Formulas of Oxoanions and their Compounds - II Calcium Nitrate Ca(NO3) Ammonium Sulfite (NH4)2SO3Strontium Sulfate SrSO Lithium Nitrite LiNO2Potassium Hypochlorite KClO Lithium Perbromate LiBrO4Rubidium Chlorate RbClO Calcium Iodite Ca(IO2)2Ammonium Chlorite NH4ClO Boron Bromate B(BrO3)3Sodium Perchlorate NaClO Magnesium Hypoiodite Mg(IO)2
6Determining Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ionsa) BaCl25 H2Ob) Magnesium Perchloratec) (NH4)2SO3d) Calcium Nitrate
7Determining Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ionsa) BaCl2Ba+2 is the cation Barium, Cl- is the Chlorideanion. There are five water molecules thereforethe name is: Barium Chloride Pentahydrate5 H2Ob) Magnesium Perchlorate Magnesium is the Mg+2 cation, andperchlorate is the ClO4- anion, therefore we needtwo perchlorate anions for each Mg cationtherefore the formula is: Mg( ClO4)2c) (NH4)2SO NH4+ is the ammonium ion, and SO3-2 is thesulfite anion, therefore the name is:Ammonium Sulfited) Calcium Nitrate Calcium is the Ca+2 cation, and nitrate is theNO3- anion, therefore the formula is:Ca(NO3)2
8Naming Acids1) Binary acids solutions form when certain gaseous compoundsdissolve in water. For example, when gaseous hydrogen chloride(HCl) dissolves in water, it forms a solution called hydrochloric acid.Prefix hydro- + anion nonmetal root + suffix -ic + the word acidhydrochloric acid2) Oxoacid names are similar to those of the oxoanions,except for two suffix changes:Anion “-ate” suffix becomes an “-ic” suffix in the acid. Anion “-ite”suffix becomes an “-ous” suffix in the acid.The oxoanion prefixes “hypo-” and “per-” are retained. Thus, BrO4-is perbromate, and HBrO4 is perbromic acid; IO2- is iodite, andHIO2 is iodous acid.
9Determining Names and Formulas of Anions and Acids Problem: Name the following anions and give the names andformulas of the acid solutions derived from them:a) I b) BrO c) SO d) NO e) CN -Solution:a) I -b) BrO3-c) SO3-2d) NO3-e) CN -
10Determining Names and Formulas of Anions and Acids Problem: Name the following anions and give the names andformulas of the acid solutions derived from them:a) I b) BrO c) SO d) NO e) CN -Solution:a) The anion is Iodide; and the acid is Hydroiodic acid, HIb) The anion is Bromate; and the acid is Bromic acid, HBrO3c) The anion is Sulfite; and the acid is Sulfurous acid, H2SO3d) The anion is Nitrate; and the acid is Nitric acid, HNO3e) The anion is Cyanide; and the acid is Hydrocyanic acid, HCN
11Names and Formulas of Binary Covalent Compounds 1) The element with the lower group number in the periodic table isthe first word in the name; the element with the higher group numberis the second word. (Important exception: When the compoundcontains oxygen and a halogen, the halogen is named first.)2) If both elements are in the same group, the one with the higherperiod number is named first.3) The second element is named with its root and the suffix “-ide.”4) Covalent compounds have Greek numerical prefixes (table 2.6) toindicate the number of atoms of each element in the compound. Thefirst word has a prefix only when more than one atom of the elementis present; the second word always has a numerical prefix.
12Determining Names and Formulas of Binary Covalent Compounds Problem:What are the name or chemical formulas of the followingchemical compounds:a) Carbon dioxide b) PCl3 c) Give the name and chemical formulaof the compound formed from two P atoms and five O atoms.Solution:a) Carbon dioxideb) PCl3c) The compound formed from two P atoms and five O atoms
13Determining Names and Formulas of Binary Covalent Compounds Problem:What are the name or Chemical formulas of the followingChemical compounds:a) Carbon dioxide b) PCl3 c) Give the name and chemical formulaof the compound formed from two P atoms and five O atoms.Solution:a) The prefix “di-” means “two.” The formula is CO2b) P is the symbol for phosphorous; there are three chlorine atomswhich require the prefix “tri-.” The name of the compound is:phosphorous trichloridec) P comes first in the name (lower group number). The compound isdiphosphorous pentaoxide( commonly called “phosphorous pentaoxide”)
14Naming AlkanesAlkanes are hydrocarbons that are called “saturated” hydrocarbons,they contain only single bonds, no multiple bonds !Alkanes have the general formula C n H 2n+2Each carbon atom has four bonds to others atoms !The names for alkanes all end in -aneAlkanes are found in three distinct groups:a) Straight chain hydrocarbonsb) Branched chain hydrocarbonsc) Cyclic hydrocarbons
16Calculate the Molecular Mass of Glucose: C6H12O6 CarbonHydrogenOxygen
17Calculate the Molecular Mass of Glucose: C6H12O6 Carbon x g/mol = amuHydrogen 12 x g/mol = amuOxygen x g/mol = amuamu
18Calculating the Molecular Mass of a Compound Problem: Using the data in the periodic table, calculate the molecularmass of the following compounds:a) Tetraphosphorous decoxide b) Ammonium sulfatePlan: We first write the formula, then multiply the number of atoms(or ions) of each element by its atomic mass, and find the sum.Solution:a) Tetraphosphorous decoxideb) Ammonium sulfate
19Calculating the Molecular Mass of a Compound Problem: Using the data in the periodic table, calculate the molecularmass of the following compounds:a) Tetraphosphorous decoxide b) Ammonium sulfatePlan: We first write the formula, then multiply the number of atoms(or ions) of each element by its atomic mass, and find the sum.Solution:a) The formula is P4O10.Molecular mass = (4 x atomic mass of P ) +(10 x atomic mass of O )= ( 4 x amu) + ( 10 x amu)= = amub) The formula is (NH4)2SO4Molecular mass = ( 2 x atomic mass of N ) + ( 8 x atomic mass of H)+ ( 1 x atomic mass of S ) + ( 4 x atomic mass of O)= ( 2 x amu) + ( 8 x amu) +( 1 x amu) + ( 4 x amu)= amu = amu
25Mixtures Heterogeneous mixtures : has one or more visible boundaries between the components.Homogeneous mixtures : has no visible boundariesbecause the components are mixed as individual atoms,ions, and molecules.Solutions : A homogeneous mixture is also called a solution.Solutions in water are called aqueous solutions, and arevery important in chemistry. Although we normally thinkof solutions as liquids, they can exist in all three physicalstates.
26Separating MixturesFiltration : Separates components of a mixture based upondifferences in particle size. Normally separating aprecipitate from a solution, or particles from anair stream.Crystallization : Separation is based upon differences insolubility of components in a mixture.Distillation : separation is based upon differences in volatility.Extraction : Separation is based upon differences insolubility in different solvents (major material).Chromatography : Separation is based upon differencesin solubility in a solvent versus a stationary phase.