Presentation on theme: "(12.2) CHAPTER 20. GLOBALIZATION: CHALLENGE AND OPPORTUNITY The meaning of “globalization”, “Global jihad”, Diaspora in Western countries, Liberal or “progressive”"— Presentation transcript:
(12.2) CHAPTER 20. GLOBALIZATION: CHALLENGE AND OPPORTUNITY The meaning of “globalization”, “Global jihad”, Diaspora in Western countries, Liberal or “progressive” Islam today.
Some definitions of “globalization” The tendency of world investment and business to move from national and domestic markets to a worldwide environment. A complex series of economic, social, technological, cultural, and political changes seen as increasing integration, and interaction between people and companies in disparate locations. Globalization refers in general to the worldwide integration of humanity and the compression of both the temporal and spatial dimensions of planetwide human interaction.... (Globalization, cultural ) a phenomenon by which the experience of everyday life, as influenced by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, reflects a standardization of cultural expressions around the world.... (Google)
Some world-wide Islamic organizations/movements Tablighi Movement founded in India in the 1920s by Muhammad Ilyas The Liberation Party ( Ḥ izb al-Ta ḥ r ī r) founded in 1952 by the Palestinian judge, Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani (1909- 1977) Muslim World League (R ā bi ṭ a), founded 1962 (non governmental organization Saudi supported) Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) founded 1969; organization of governments
Time line Afghanistan, al-Qaeda 1978 Communist government in Afghanistan 1979-89 Soviet troops in Afghanistan; jih ā d against them. Abdullah ‘Azzam preaches the centrality and necessity of jih ā d. 1988(?) Al-Qaeda first formed (recruited esp. from al-Zawahiri’s faction of (Egyptian) Islamic Jihad) 1991Bin Ladin’s offer to help Saudis against Iraq rejected; Saudi Arabia accepts US troops. 1992-6Mujahidin in power in Afghanistan. 199323 Feb, World Trade Center bombed (Omar Abd al-Rahman, connected with Egyptian al-Jam ā ‘a al-Isl ā miyya, involved) 1995Nov, bomb blast at Egyptian Embassy in Islamabad carried out by al-Zawahiri’s faction of Islamic Jihad.
Time line Afghanistan, al-Qaeda, ctd. 1994-6Taliban formed by Mullah Omar and take control of Kabul Sept 1996 1996Bin Laden returns to Afghanistan, receives protection from Mullah Omar. 1998(?)Bin Laden reorganizes al-Qaeda. 1998? 1998Feb., Manifesto: “World Islamic Front against Jews and Crusaders” 1998Aug 7, “martyrdom operations” against 3 US embassies in Africa; Americans retaliate with attacks on Afghanistan and Sudan 2000“Martyrdom” attack on USS Cole. 2001“9/11”, Airplanes crash into Twin Towers of World Trade Center and Pentagon
Time line Afghanistan, al-Qaeda, ctd. 2001US invasion forces Taleban out of most of Afghanistan, they stage comeback beginning 2006 2003 12 Oct, Bombing of Bali night club (Al-Qaeda affiliate) 2004March, Bombing of commuter train in Madrid (Al- Qaeda sympathers) 2004Abu Mus‘ab al-Zarqawi recognized by Bin Laden as “the prince of al-Qaeda in Iraq.” Zarqawi killed 2006 2005July 7, bombings of trains etc in London (Al-Qaeda sympathers)
“A destroyer, even the brave fear its might, It inspires horror in the harbour and in the open sea, She sails into the waves Flanked by arrogance, haughtiness and false power,` To her doom she moves slowly, A dinghy awaits her, riding the waves.” (Bin Laden on the attack on the U.S.S. Cole: Lawrence 2003, 149)
Why martyrdom operations? 1. Martyrdom is done for God and receives an immediate heavenly reward. “Say not of those slain in the way of Allah that they are dead; in fact they are living, but you are unaware.” (Qur’an 2:154 ) 2. These operations can be carried out by the weak against the strong. 3. They can achieve concrete results, e.g. Lebanon 1983, Afghanistan 1989. 4. They encourage the Muslims by demonstrating U.S. weakness. 5. They provide publicity. 6. They restore the honor of the umma by gaining revenge against the West. 7. They are a warning to the West.
Why not “martyrdom operations”? 1. Islam is fundamentally about peace, not violence. 2. It is forbidden to kill non-combatants intentionally 3. It is forbidden to commit suicide 4. Traditional fiqh strongly condemns those who commit the kind of violence involved in terrorism (e.g. Isma‘ili “Assassins”)
A Muslim statement on “9/11” “The undersigned, leaders of Islamic movements, are horrified by the events of Tuesday 11 September 2001 in the United States which resulted in massive killing, destruction and attack on innocent lives. We express our deepest sympathies and sorrow. We condemn, in the strongest terms, the incidents, which are against all human and Islamic norms. This is grounded in the Noble Laws of Islam which forbid all forms of attacks on innocents. God Almighty says in the Holy Qur'an: 'No bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another' (Surah al-Isra 17:15).” [Signatures include leaders of the Muslim Brothers, Jama‘at-i Islami, Hamas and others] (MSANews, September 14, 2001)
What is terrorism? Like other tendentious terms, it is hard to define, but we may suggest the following characteristics: 1. It involves violence or the threat of violence to people or damage to property. 2. It has a political or ideological goal. 3. This goal is immoral (otherwise they are “freedom fighters”) 4. Its victims may usually be described “innocent” or “non- combatants” in relation to the goal in question. 5. It is public, aimed at an audience that it seeks to terrorize into doing or not doing something, or to influence the action of a government or weaken a government.
Terrorism before al-Qaeda (incomplete list; some may not qualify because of item 3 in the previous frame) Russian anarchists in the late 19th century Jewish groups in Palestine about 1945-8, Palestinian groups, secular and Islamist, especially since 2000. Protestant and Catholic groups in Northern Ireland; Greek Cypriots before independence (1950-60) Mau Mau in Kenya before independence (1950s) Basque separatists in Spain Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka 1983-2009 (said to have carried out more “martyrdom” operations than all the others together). French and Muslims in Algerian war of independence (1954-62) Algerian government and Islamists in the 1990s. Mujahidin-i Khalq in Iran carried on “martyrdom” attacks on government leaders in 1981 Terrorism is less an “Islamic” phenomenon than a “modern” phenomenon.
Some Figures on Muslim Populations of Four Western Countries CIAPEWCIAPEW France6,405,7793,554,00010.0%6% Germany3,046,2014,026,0003.7%5% UK1,650,0571,647,0002.7% United States*1,843,2732,454,0000.6%0.8% (CIA World Factbook for 2009 and Pew Research Center, 2009.) *Another source, Muslim Population Worldwide for 2008, gives figures similar to the CIA except for the U.S., for which it gives 6,420,000 and 6.12%. This disparity of figures for the U.S. is well known.
Four countries: immigration and attitudes Large scale immigration from Predominant ethnicities Predominant Attitude of host country France1950sN. Africanassimilationist Germany1962 inter-gov’t agreement Turkishseparatist United Kingdon1950sSouth AsianMulti-culturalist (with reservations) United States1965Diverseintegrationist (with reservations)
Typical patterns of immigrants’ adjustment by generations (Somewhat less applicable to U.S.) First generation, settling in, not fully acculturated Basic ritual and other activities in homes or rented premises Replicate religious forms traditional in land of origin Mosques built (later) Imams from land of origin, usually less acculturated than others After school classes and possibly day schools for children Regional/national associations formed Most avoid local politics
Second generation: between the old country and the new More acculturated to the host country Under pressure from parents to retain most of the old ways May opt for maximal acculturation, often in rebellion against parents May opt for an extremist version of old ways, i.e. Islamism May privilege Islamic identity over ethnic identity without becoming extremists May seek a French/German/British/American Islam. May or may not suffer marginalization in host culture (will influence above choices)
Tariq Ramadan on the basis for living in a Western country: 1. A Muslim is involved in a contract with the country in which he lives. 2. European legislation allows Muslims to practice at least the basics of their religion; 3. Concept of Dar al-Harb is outdated; Europe is Dar al-Da‘wa or Dar al-Shahada, “the West is space where the shahada can be pronounced, respected and witnessed.” 4. Muslims should see themselves as full citizens. 5. European legislation does not prevent Muslims from making choices in accord w their religion. 6, “Dialectical” relationship to the environment, “... a coexistence which would not be peace in separation but living together in participation ”
Can the Shari‘a be applied among Muslims in the Western world? Certain aspects of Shari‘a are already followed, e.g. in ṣ al ā h, zak ā h etc. Matters relating to marriage etc. are sometimes adjudicated by arbitration by Muslim scholars and recognized by the state (e.g. UK) What about matters where secular law and Shari‘a law differ, e.g. in matters of human rights, gender issues. Who determines the interpretation of the Shari‘a in given cases? Must one system of law, that of the state, have the final say in all cases and for all people? Must there be a set of moral principles outside of any particular system of law that is recognized by all?
“I have been arguing that a defence of an unqualified secular legal monopoly in terms of the need for a universalist doctrine of human right or dignity is to misunderstand the circumstances in which that doctrine emerged, and that the essential liberating (and religiously informed) vision it represents is not imperilled by a loosening of the monopolistic framework” (From “Civil and Religious Law in England: a Religious Perspective” Archbishop Rowan Williams, 7 February 2008)
“... it seems that if we are to think intelligently about the relations between Islam and British law, we need a fair amount of 'deconstruction' of crude oppositions and mythologies, whether of the nature of sharia or the nature of the Enlightenment. But as I have hinted, I do not believe this can be done without some thinking also about the very nature of law.” (From “Civil and Religious Law in England: a Religious Perspective” Archbishop Rowan Williams 07 February 2008)
Fazlur Rahman on Prophetic Revelation “There were moments when [the Prophet], as it were, ‘transcends himself’ and his moral cognitive perception becomes so acute and so keen that his consciousness becomes identical with the moral law itself.... But the moral law and religious values are God’s Command.... The Qur’an is, therefore, purely divine.... but, of course, it is equally intimately related to the inmost personality of the Prophet Mu ḥ ammad.... The Divine Word flowed through the Prophet’s heart.” (Fazlur Rahman, Islam, 32)
Abdulkarim Soroush on Prophetic Revelation But the Prophet is also the creator of the revelation in another way. What he receives from God is the content of the revelation. This content, however, is... beyond words. It is formless and the activity of the person of the Prophet is to form the formless, so as to make it accessible. Like a poet again, the Prophet transmits the inspiration in the language he knows, the styles he masters and the images and knowledge he possesses. But his personality also plays an important role in shaping the text. His personal history: his father, his mother, his childhood. And even his moods.... (The Word of Mohammad An interview with Abdulkarim Soroush By Michel Hoebink December 2007)
Soroush ctd. A human view of the Koran makes it possible to distinguish between the essential and the accidental aspects of religion. Some parts of religion are historically and culturally determined and no longer relevant today. That is the case, for instance, with the corporal punishments prescribed in the Koran. If the Prophet had lived in another cultural environment, those punishments would probably not have been part of his message. (The Word of Mohammad An interview with Abdulkarim Soroush By Michel Hoebink December 2007)
Soroush on diversity Q. Are you weakening the traditional outlook or are you basically trying to negate monolithic thinking? Or is your quarrel the same old quarrel of the mystics and the jurists. Or is the whole thing simply a product of your political extremism? A. What I’m doing is introducing rivals, alternatives and companions. That is to say, if you imagine a solitary figure standing on the stage, what I’m doing is introducing a few other figures, who may be taller or shorter, onto the stage. In the realm of knowledge, I seek plurality.
Soroush on diversity ctd. The fact of the matter is that the history of humanity has developed in an inherently pluralistic way. In other words, history is full of alternatives and parallel lines. Linear and one- dimensional history is a figment of the imagination of history professors, not a product of the history-making masses. Looking for and seeing parallel lines gives one an open-mindedness and breadth of vision that can solve a host of problems. Yes, if other viewpoints and traditions are brought onto the stage, the traditional viewpoint will no longer be the be all and end all of all history and knowledge. But why should I worry about that? I have only presented the rivals, I haven’t created them. (Interview published in the Tehran daily Jameah in 1998 and in the book: Siyasat Nameh)
Muhammad Sa‘id al-‘Ashmawi on interpretation of the Qur’an The Qur'an, as the revelation of God, is the main source of the Shari‘a, but interpreting it is a complex task.... Almost all of the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to particular situations.... For example, that favorite Islamist text, "Whoever does not rule (ya ḥ kum ) by what God has revealed, they are the k ā firs", was revealed in relation to the Jews of Muhammad's time... and was not intended for Muslims.... Likewise, the passage, "Do not take Jews and Christians as friends...", was directed to a particular situation of conflict with the Banu Qurayza and is not to be taken as a general directive on intercommunal relations. One must also pay attention to the meanings of terms at the time of revelation, for many, have changed their meanings since then.... For example, at the time of revelation the word ya ḥ kum, in the passage cited above, did not refer to government but to the action of a judge or mediator.... Hence it is inappropriate to apply this passage to government. (W. Shepard, "Muhammad Sa‘id al-‘Ashmawi and the Application of the Shari‘ah", International Journal of Middle East Studies 28 (February 1996): 39-58.)
Amina Wadud on interpretation of the Qur’an “This method of restricting the particulars to a specific context, extracting the principles intended by the Qur’an through that particular, and then applying those principles to other particulars in various cultural contexts, forms a major variation from previous exegetical methodologies. The movement from principles to particulars can only be done by the members of whatever particular context a principle is to be applied. Therefore, interpretation of the Qur’an can never be final.” (Wadud, Qur’an and Woman, 10)
Amina Wadud ctd. “A hermeneutical model which drives basic ethical principles for further developments and legal considerations by giving precedence to general statements rather than particulars could solve many problems in applications. (Ibid. 30) Overall, my analysis tends to restrict the meaning of many passages to a particular subject, event or context. These restrictions are based on the context of the verses or on application of general Qur’anic concepts of justice. (Ibid. 63)