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Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach PART 1: EXPLORING PERSONALITYCHAPTER 2: RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach PART 1: EXPLORING PERSONALITYCHAPTER 2: RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach PART 1: EXPLORING PERSONALITYCHAPTER 2: RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY Research In Personality Focus on Handling Multiple Variables This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any image; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 How Do Psychologists Study So Many Variables? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach PART 1: EXPLORING PERSONALITYCHAPTER 2: RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY Multiple Variables Personality is a complex, multifaceted system This means that a lot of variables may be examined at a time How does one cope?

3 How Do Psychologists Study So Many Variables? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach PART 1: EXPLORING PERSONALITYCHAPTER 2: RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY Multivariate Techniques Multivariate techniques handle multiple variables One crucial kind of technique examines how many things are being measured This class of techniques includes: –Factor analysis (the example here) –Multidimensional scaling –Cluster analysis

4 How Do Psychologists Study So Many Variables? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach PART 1: EXPLORING PERSONALITYCHAPTER 2: RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY Logic of Factor Analysis Factor analysis uses correlational logic –If multiple variables correlate highly, they are the same thing –If the variables dont, they are different things Example: –If happiness and joy correlate highly: the same –If they dont: different

5 How Do Psychologists Study So Many Variables? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach PART 1: EXPLORING PERSONALITYCHAPTER 2: RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY 1. What does a factor look like? I am:I Curious.40 Interested.60 Thoughtful.80 Bored -.40 The test items from the original test are in the left-most column A factor is represented by a column of factor loadings under a roman numeral The factor loading is the correlation between a test item and a factor

6 How Do Psychologists Study So Many Variables? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach PART 1: EXPLORING PERSONALITYCHAPTER 2: RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY Simplified Rules for Interpreting a Factor Step 1: Identify original test items with high positive loadings Step 2: Ask, what are the items trying to get at? (Thats the primary name of the factor). (e.g., extraversion) Step 3: Locate the items loading negatively on the same factor. Those tell you the polar opposite label (e.g., introversion) – if there is one Step 4: No high loadings? Then, the factor is a garbage factor.

7 How Do Psychologists Study So Many Variables? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach PART 1: EXPLORING PERSONALITYCHAPTER 2: RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY Example A I II Do you like parties? Are you often nervous? Are you sociable? Do you prefer to read over going to parties? Are you often in a bad mood?.04.70

8 How Do Psychologists Study So Many Variables? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach PART 1: EXPLORING PERSONALITYCHAPTER 2: RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY Example B I feel… I II III Happiness Sadness Excitement Anxiety Calm

9 What Does It Mean to Measure Personality? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach PART 1: EXPLORING PERSONALITYCHAPTER 2: RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY ~ End ~


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