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Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Motivation.

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Presentation on theme: "Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Motivation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Motivation and Emotion Focus on Emotions This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any image; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 What Are Emotions and Why Are They Important? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion From Motives to Emotion There can be direct connections: e.g., anger often accompanies aggression Happiness and joining others Emotion can amplify motives: e.g., happiness can amplify altruism. (Silvan Tomkins)

3 What Are Emotions and Why Are They Important? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion From Motives to Emotion Robert Plutchik’s Emotion-Motive Connections EmotionMotiveFunctionTrait FearEscapingProtectionTimid AngerAttackingDestruction Quarrelsome JoyMatingReproductionSociable

4 What Are Emotions and Why Are They Important? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Emotions as Evolved Signal System Darwin & the evolution of emotions Saw commonalities in facial and other emotional expressions across species Harbor Seals and Chimpanzees mouth feeding

5 What Are Emotions and Why Are They Important? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Emotions as Evolved Signal System Darwin & the evolution of emotions Saw commonalities in facial and other emotional expressions across species Anger in the cat and dog

6 What Are Emotions and Why Are They Important? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Emotions as Evolved Signal System The brain is designed to connect basic emotions with basic facial expressions

7 What Are Emotions and Why Are They Important? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Universality of Facial Expressions Percent Agreement as to Facial Expression in Developed Nations JapanBrazilChileU.S. Happiness Fear Surprise Anger Disgust Sadness

8 What Are Emotions and Why Are They Important? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Universality of Facial Expressions Emerging, pre-literate societies Tell a story: “She is sitting in a house with no axe, or bow. A pig is standing in the door looking at her and won’t move…” Agreement equally high as in Western nations

9 What Are Emotional Traits and How… Expressed? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Measuring Emotional States Self report is king! Psychophysiology secondary Mood and emotion are often used synonymously for emotional experience

10 What Are Emotional Traits and How… Expressed? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Background on Measurement Mood (or Emotion) scales often involve lists of emotion adjectives –Vincent Nowlis –drug company research Using a contemporary approach, there are two dimensions of mood/emotion

11 What Are Emotional Traits and How… Expressed? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Background on Measuring Emotion Russell’s Mood Circumplex

12 What Are Emotional Traits and How… Expressed? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Background on Measuring Emotions Emotions are momentary…or are they? Emotions and relation to personality…

13 What Are Emotional Traits and How… Expressed? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Background on Measuring Personality Hans Eysenck Developed psychological scales Was among the first to apply factor analysis Sample questions –“I prefer making friends to being alone” –“I often feel anxious.”

14 What Are Emotional Traits and How… Expressed? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Background on Measuring Personality Eysenck’s 2- dimensional model of personality is based on factor analysis Personality traits are arranged amidst the two dimensions Restless Aggressive Rigid Sober Thoughtful Reliable Talkative Easygoing ExtravertedIntroverted Neurotic Stable

15 What Are Emotional Traits and How… Expressed? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Background on Measuring Personality Remember the ancient division of personality into four types? –Sanguine –Choleric –Melancholic –Phlegmatic …Is there a connection? Restless Aggressive Rigid Sober Thoughtful Reliable Talkative Easygoing ExtravertedIntroverted Neurotic Stable

16 What Are Emotional Traits and How… Expressed? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Comparison of States and Traits Restless Aggressive Rigid Sober Thoughtful Reliable Talkative Easygoing ExtravertedIntroverted Neurotic Stable

17 What Are Emotional Traits and How… Expressed? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Conclusions Many traditional “personality traits” reflect a two dimensional structure. Many moods reflect a two dimensional structure The personality traits and the mood traits correspond, when they are rotated –Extroversion = arousal –Introversion = calmness –Neuroticism = unpleasantness –Emotional Stability = pleasantness

18 What Are Happy People Like? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion A Study of the Happiest Students Diener and Seligman screened 222 college stduents Only the 24 happiest students were selected They scored highest on measures of well-being They had consistently happy moods over a 51 day period They had low “negative” moods over the same period

19 What Are Happy People Like? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayer’s Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 4: Motivation and Emotion Results from the Study The same as others... Perceived money they had Their grades Conscientiousness Objective physical appearance Time spent in various activities (TV, religious observance) Different from others… Highly satisfied with lives Nearly never thought about suicide Recall many more happy events Experienced more happy events every day Had good quality relationships with family and friends


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