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Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Mental.

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Presentation on theme: "Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Mental."— Presentation transcript:

1 Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Mental Abilities and Skills Focus on Hot Intelligences and Creativity This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any image; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 What Are Some Major Mental Abilities? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Defining Intelligence Most important: The capacity to carry out abstract reasoning (similarities, differences, accurate generalizations) Adaptation and adjustment –Stern: the general capacity of an individual to adjust Learning –Hennon: capacity for knowledge and knowledge possessed Neural approaches –Pinter: modifiability of the nervous system

3 Are There Additional Mental Abilities? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… What is hot? Hot information is motivational, emotional, or social information of direct importance or concern to the individual. Hot mental abilities are abilities to process and cope with such personally meaningful and important information

4 Are There Additional Mental Abilities? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Social Intelligence E. L. Thorndike (1920) first described social intelligence as The ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls – to act wisely… Appeared to correlated so highly with general IQ as not to be distinct. Research on social intelligence slowed and was unattended to for much of the second half of the 20 th century

5 Are There Additional Mental Abilities? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… First sustained theory and measure of emotional intelligence (Mayer & Salovey, 1990; Salovey & Mayer, 1990) Popularization of emotional intelligence (Goleman, 1995) Huge research endeavor thereafter Emotional Intelligence

6 Are There Additional Mental Abilities? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Emotional Intelligence. Emotions Are Signals about Relationships and Related Actions Each emotion means something and operates in a particular way. An emotion is, in some sense, like a piece on a chessboard; each emotion has its own function and set of moves.

7 Are There Additional Mental Abilities? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Emotional Intelligence Managing Emotions Understanding Emotions Facilitating Thought Perceiving Emotions Emotional Intelligence. Four Branch Model of Emotional Intelligence (Mayer & Salovey, 1997; Salovey & Mayer, 1990)

8 Are There Additional Mental Abilities? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Emotional Intelligence. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) Another Example: Question: A blend of regret, sentimental feelings, love, and loss might lead to what feeling? Answer: nostalgia

9 How Does Personality Express Its Abilities? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… How is Emotional Intelligence Expressed? Stronger, closer relationships Fewer fights and conflicts Less drug abuse, alcohol abuse

10 Are There Additional Mental Abilities? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Defining Creativity Definition: The ability to come up with many novel solutions to problems

11 Are There Additional Mental Abilities? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Measuring Creativity Alternate Uses –How many uses can you come up with for a shoe? Verbal Fluency –What words rhyme with nation? Remote Associates –What goes with: MATE, CLASS, & STORE?

12 How Do Personality and Intelligence Relate? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… Causes Educational –1 year of school = 2 IQ points –Each time you hear me, your IQ goes up.02 points! Biological –Neural transmission speed studies Choice reaction time –Brain size studies Brain scanning results –IQ is highly heritable

13 How Does Personality Express Its Abilities? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… How is IQ Expressed? Life StatusCorrelation with IQ Primary school rank in classr =.50 Secondary school rank in classr = High School gradesr =.60 Freshman GPAr =.44* *The r between IQ and SATs is.80

14 How Does Personality Express Its Abilities? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… How is IQ Expressed? Educational LevelAverage IQ Primary School100 Secondary School110 College118 Professional School126

15 How Does Personality Express Its Abilities? © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 2: Parts of PersonalityChapter 6: Mental Abilities and… How is Creativity Expressed? Greater output of products (books, poems, music, scientific achievements) judged as creative Longer, delayed, career attainments Novel or unusual career paths


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