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Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 1: Exploring PersonalityChapter 3: Theories of Personality Perspectives.

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Presentation on theme: "Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 1: Exploring PersonalityChapter 3: Theories of Personality Perspectives."— Presentation transcript:

1 Getting Started Copyright © 2007 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 1: Exploring PersonalityChapter 3: Theories of Personality Perspectives on Personality: Focus on Intrapsychic Perspectives This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any image; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 The Intrapsychic Perspective © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 1: Exploring PersonalityChapter 3: Theories of Personality Central Ideas of the Trait Approach There are consistencies in personal behavior These consistencies are important parts of personality – referred to as traits Personality is the search for and understanding of traits Key figure: Gordon Allport

3 The Intrapsychic Perspective © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 1: Exploring PersonalityChapter 3: Theories of Personality Example: The Big Five Traits NeuroticismExtraversion Agreeableness Openness Conscientiousness

4 The Intrapsychic Perspective © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 1: Exploring PersonalityChapter 3: Theories of Personality Traits Can Be Identified Through Factor Analysis Test items (Are you…?)IIIIIIIVV Anxious Distressed Calm Open-minded Strait and narrow Warm-hearted Stand-offish Orderly Spontaneous Outgoing Enjoy solitude Hostile

5 The Sociocultural Approach Perspective © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 1: Exploring PersonalityChapter 3: Theories of Personality Central Social-Cognitive Ideas Personality is made up of cognitive structures Those cognitive structures are learned and influence how a person thinks

6 The Sociocultural Approach Perspective © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 1: Exploring PersonalityChapter 3: Theories of Personality Social Cognitive Approach Conditional Traits Given X, I am aggressive Given Y, I am cooperative

7 The Intrapsychic Perspective © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 1: Exploring PersonalityChapter 3: Theories of Personality Threatening ideas are avoided and become unconscious Central Psychodynamic Ideas Central idea(s): –Parts of personality Basic motives These drive thoughts and action –Status of thoughts Some conscious; Some unconscious –Parts dynamically struggle with one another

8 The Intrapsychic Perspective © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 1: Exploring PersonalityChapter 3: Theories of Personality Psychodynamic Perspective: Example A key insight: People can become self- aware and change …The person free associates until unconscious motives are uncovered… The person will be mentally healthier by making the unconscious conscious –Irrational behavior (symptoms) will be reduced –Repeated unhelpful patterns will be identified

9 The Intrapsychic Perspective © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 1: Exploring PersonalityChapter 3: Theories of Personality Conclusions Trait theory focuses on consistent qualities of the individual (traits) Social cognitive theory explains how consistency is modulated by context (if-then) Many of those consistencies are in an individuals comfort zone; some are not. Psychodynamic theory explains how certain repeated, problematic (uncomfortable) styles, can finally be observed and changed.

10 The Intrapsychic Perspective © Copyright 2006 Allyn & Bacon Mayers Personality: A Systems Approach Part 1: Exploring PersonalityChapter 3: Theories of Personality ~ end ~


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