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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 PowerPoint Presentations to Accompany AP ed. Philip G. Zimbardo Robert L. Johnson Ann L. Weber Craig W. Gruber Prepared.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 PowerPoint Presentations to Accompany AP ed. Philip G. Zimbardo Robert L. Johnson Ann L. Weber Craig W. Gruber Prepared."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 PowerPoint Presentations to Accompany AP ed. Philip G. Zimbardo Robert L. Johnson Ann L. Weber Craig W. Gruber Prepared by David Lundberg-Kenrick This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images Any rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN:

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. ISBN: Chapter 1 Introduction and History of Psychology

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Many things that happen to us leave no record in memory True or False? True: Most of the information around us never reaches memory, and what does reach memory often gets distorted

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 You are born with all the brain cells you will ever have True or False? False: Recent research shows that some parts of the brain continue producing new cells throughout life

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 True or False? Both center patches are the same shade of gray

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

7 True: The patch on the right appeared darker due to perceptual contrast with its background

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 True: The patch on the right appeared darker due to perceptual contrast with its background

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Intelligence is a purely genetic trait that does not change throughout a persons life True or False? False: Intelligence is the result of both heredity and environment, and may change throughout your life

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The most common form of mental disorder occurs in 30% of the population True or False? True: Depression, the single most common disorder, may affect up to a third of the population at some point in their lives

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Repeated exposure to the same face leads us to like it less False: Familiar people (and their faces) are generally liked more than less familiar people True or False?

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not? Psychology is a broad field, with many specialties, but fundamentally, psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not? Psychology – The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Psychology is not Mere speculation about human nature A body of folk wisdom about people that everybody knows to be true

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Pseudopsychology – Erroneous assertions of practices set forth as being scientific psychology What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not? Psychology disputes unfounded claims from pseudopsychology

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Do Psychologists Do? Psychology is a broad field with many specialties, grouped in three major categories: experimental psychology, teaching of psychology and applied psychology

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Do Psychologists Do? Experimental psychologists Conduct most research across psychological spectrum May work in private industry or for the government Often teach at college or university

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 I/OSports School Counseling Engineering Rehabilitation Use knowledge developed by experimental psychologists to solve human problems Clinical What Do Psychologists Do? Applied psychologists

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Are Psychologys Historical Roots? Modern psychology developed from several conflicting traditions, including structuralism, functionalism, Gestalt psychology, behaviorism, and psychoanalysis

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Devoted to uncovering basic structures that make up mind and thought Tradition Structuralism Functionalism Psychoanalysis Gestalt psychology Behaviorism

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Believed mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose and function Tradition Structuralism Functionalism Psychoanalysis Gestalt psychology Behaviorism

21 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Interested in how we construct perceptual wholes Tradition Structuralism Functionalism Psychoanalysis Gestalt psychology Behaviorism

22 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Argued psychology should deal solely with observable events Tradition Structuralism Functionalism Psychoanalysis Gestalt psychology Behaviorism

23 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Asserted mental disorders arise from conflicts in the unconscious mind Tradition Structuralism Functionalism Psychoanalysis Gestalt psychology Behaviorism

24 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What are the Perspectives Psychologists Use Today? Seven main perspectives characterize modern psychology: the biological, developmental, cognitive, clinical, behavioral, trait, and socio-cultural views

25 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Biological Developmental Psychodynamic Sociocultural Cognitive Behavioral Trait Nine Modern Perspectives of Psychology Humanistic Evolutionary/ Sociobiological

26 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 View of Human Nature: We are complex systems that respond to hereditary and environmental influences What Determines Behavior: Neural structures, biochemistry, and inborn responses to external cues Question for Study: How do heredity, the nervous system, and the endocrine system produce behavior and mental processes? Perspective Biological Developmental Psychodynamic Sociocultural Cognitive Behavioral Trait Humanistic Evolutionary/ Sociobiological

27 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 View of Human Nature: We undergo predictable patterns of change throughout our lives What Determines Behavior: Interaction between heredity and environment Questions for Study: What are the patterns that characterize developmental change? What are the genetic and environmental influences underlying these patterns? Perspective Biological Developmental Psychodynamic Sociocultural Cognitive Behavioral Trait Humanistic Evolutionary/ Sociobiological

28 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 View of Human Nature: People are information- processing systems What Determines Behavior: Mental interpretation of our experience Question for Study: How do mental processes, including sensation, perception, learning, memory, and language, influence behavior? Perspective Biological Developmental Psychodynamic Sociocultural Cognitive Behavioral Trait Humanistic Evolutionary/ Sociobiological

29 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 View of Human Nature: We are driven by dark forces of the unconscious Perspective What Determines Behavior: Unconscious needs, conflicts, repressed memories, and childhood experiences Question for Study: How does the energy generated in the unconscious mind motivate our actions and account for mental disorders? Biological Developmental Psychodynamic Sociocultural Cognitive Behavioral Trait Humanistic Evolutionary/ Sociobiological

30 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 View of Human Nature: Emphasizes human growth and potential Perspective What Determines Behavior: The influence of self-concept, perceptions, and interpersonal relationships, and on need for personal growth Question for Study: How can humanistic theory be applied to enhance mental health through counseling and therapy? Biological Developmental Psychodynamic Sociocultural Cognitive Behavioral Trait Humanistic Evolutionary/ Sociobiological

31 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 View of Human Nature: Behavior is primarily shaped by learning Perspective What Determines Behavior: Stimulus cues and our history of rewards and punishments Questions for Study: What are the laws that associate our responses with stimulus conditions? How can they be applied to improve the human condition? Biological Developmental Psychodynamic Sociocultural Cognitive Behavioral Trait Humanistic Evolutionary/ Sociobiological

32 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 View of Human Nature: People are social animals, so human behavior must be interpreted in social context Perspective What Determines Behavior: Cultures, social norms and expectations, social learning Questions for Study: Under what conditions is the social and cultural situation predictive of behavior? How are social influences different across cultures? Biological Developmental Psychodynamic Sociocultural Cognitive Behavioral Trait Humanistic Evolutionary/ Sociobiological

33 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 View of Human Nature: Behavior is developed and adapted over time Perspective What Determines Behavior: Natural selection Question for Study: How do behavior and individual differences develop and change? Biological Developmental Psychodynamic Sociocultural Cognitive Behavioral Trait Humanistic Evolutionary/ Sociobiological

34 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 View of Human Nature: Individual differences result from differences in our underlying patterns of stable characteristics Perspective What Determines Behavior: Each persons unique combination of traits Question for Study: How many fundamental traits are there? How can we use trait patterns to predict behavior? Biological Developmental Psychodynamic Sociocultural Cognitive Behavioral Trait Humanistic Evolutionary/ Sociobiological

35 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 End of Chapter 1


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