2Making Claims In the Toulmin Method, arguments begin with claims Definition :A controversial or debatable assertion you intend to prove as true.It is an answer to the sometimes hostile question: So, what’s your point?They are statements, NOT questions.Examples:NASA should launch a human expedition to Mars.Vegetarianism is the best choice of diet.It’s time to lower the drinking age.
3Offering Reasons Definition: an item that helps to support a claim Some examples may include:Personal experienceAnecdotesFacts and statisticsAuthoritative statementsAttach a reason to a claim; it helps to spell out the major terms of the argument.Examples:NASA should launch a human expedition to Mars because the Earth cannot sustain its population indefinitely.Vegetarianism is the best diet because many doctors choose vegetarianism.It’s time to lower the drinking age because some teenagers are responsible.
4Determining WarrantsDefinition: a logical connection between a claim and the reason(s) supporting it.It answers the question of how to get from the claim to the data.The warrant is the assumption that makes the claim seem possible.Examples:NASA should launch a human expedition to Mars because due to the viability of the atmosphere, the Earth cannot sustain its population indefinitely.Vegetarianism is the best diet, and because diets are important to your health, many doctors choose to become vegetarians.It’s time to lower the drinking age and because I’m responsible and have been drinking since I was 14, many other teens should be able to handle the responsibility.
5Backing and GroundsEvidence you offer to support a warrant is called backing.Evidence you offer to support a claim is called grounds.This information is usually based on appeals (ethos, pathos, logos).Example:Reason: (Because) the Earth cannot sustain its population indefinitely,Warrant: (And) the viability of our atmosphere is in danger,Backing: we should help save furture mankind by finding a new place to live; (pathos)Backing: it is up to the greatest minds in the nation to solve the situation; (ethos)Backing: it only makes sense that we form a new habitat for humanity; (logos)Claim: therefore, NASA should launch a human expedition to MarsGrounds: so humanity can have new resources to sustain us. (logos)Grounds: so we can spread the miracle of humanity to the universe. (pathos)
6Using Qualifiers Words and phrases that place limits on claims. Because the Earth cannot sustain its population indefinitely, and the viability of the our atmosphere (may be) in danger, we should help save future mankind by finding a new place to live; therefore, NASA should launch a human expedition to Mars so we can spread the miracle of humanity to the universe.
7In Order then… Toulmin Schema should always be in the following order: ReasonWarrantBackingClaimGroundAnd somewhere there should be a qualifier
8AssignmentChoose one of the following and create a logical schema using Toulmin logic. It must consist of ALL SIX PARTS.All people should wait to have children until they are thirty.All 18-year-old Americans should be required to serve in the military for one year.Living in an area where the sun shines most of the year is better than living in an area where is rains most of the year.Girls should never be allowed to play physically challenging sports.