Presentation on theme: "OCTOBER 25, 2010 PLEASE TAKE YOUR PAPERS FROM THE FOLDERS. (DO NOT LEAVE THEM, TAKE THEM WITH YOU.) YOUR MIDTERM WILL BE RETURNED TO YOU ON WEDNESDAY."— Presentation transcript:
OCTOBER 25, 2010 PLEASE TAKE YOUR PAPERS FROM THE FOLDERS. (DO NOT LEAVE THEM, TAKE THEM WITH YOU.) YOUR MIDTERM WILL BE RETURNED TO YOU ON WEDNESDAY. Welcome
Agenda Engrade Argumentation-Persuasion Essay 4 Choosing your topic For Wednesday
Argumentation Using clear thinking and logic, the writer tries to convince readers of the soundness of a particular opinion on a controversial issue.
Persuasion A piece of writing that uses emotional language and dramatic appeals to readers’ concerns, beliefs, and values. Besides acceptance of an opinion, persuasion often urges readers to commit themselves to a course of action.
Argumentation-Persuasion Argumentation, Persuasion, and combinations of the two are everywhere. In editorials In your own writing This kind of essay involves more than presenting a point and providing evidence. It assumes controversy and addresses opposing viewpoints.
Argumentation-Persuasion Hard to predict what will make readers accept your point of view. Three factors that are crucial to the effectiveness of argumentation-persuasion: Logos Pathos Ethos
Logos Soundness of your argument. Facts Statistics Examples Authoritative Statements Unified, specific, accurate and representative supporting evidence.
Pathos Emotional power of language. Appeals to the reader’s needs, values, and attitudes, encouraging them to commit to a viewpoint or course of action. Includes connotative language (words with strong emotional overtones)
Ethos Credibility and reliability You cannot expect readers to accept or act on your viewpoint unless you convince them that you know what you are talking about and that you are worth listening to. You establish ethos by presenting a logical, reasoned argument that takes opposing viewpoints into account.
Audience Audience assessment is particularly important in argumentation-persuasion. Not only must you assess your reader’s interest in order to establish a reasonable purpose for your writing, but you must also understand the characteristics of your audience so you know which points need to be stated and proven, what kind of evidence will be the most effective, how hard you must work to convince your reader, and how your audience will respond to emotional appeals.
Supportive Audience Agrees with your position and trusts your credibility. No need for a highly reasoned argument dense with facts, examples and statistics. You can rely primarily on pathos.
Wavering Audience Interested but not fully committed to your viewpoint. Or may not be as informed on the subject as they should be. In either case: Don’t alienate them with heavy handed emotional appeal. Concentrate on ethos and logos. Bolster your image as a reliable source and provide evidence to advance your position.
Hostile Audience An apathetic or skeptical audience. Hard to convince. Avoid emotional appeals Might seem irrational, sentimental, or even comical. Use logical reasoning and hard-to-dispute facts.
Strategies Identify the controversy surrounding your issue and state your position. Thesis is often called the assertion or proposition. Thesis should not be a factual statement, it should express your view. Offer readers strong support for your thesis. Seek to create goodwill Avoid alienating readers Find common ground
Strategies Organize the supporting evidence Use Rogerian strategy to acknowledge differing viewpoints. (Carl Rogers) Take the opposing viewpoints into account Reduce conflict rather than to produce a winner or loser. Understand the opposing viewpoint Open the essay with an unbiased statement of your viewpoint When appropriate, acknowledge the validity of some of the arguments raised by the opposition. Point out common ground. Present evidence for your position.
Strategies Refute differing viewpoints. Use inductions or deduction to think logically about your argument. Induction: examination of specific cases, facts, and examples. Based on these you draw a conclusion or generalization. Deduction: Begin with a generalization and apply it to a specific case.
Strategies Use Toulmin logic to establish a strong connection between your evidence and thesis. Claim – the thesis, proposition or conclusion. Data – The evidence Warrant – The underlying assumptions that justifies moving from evidence to claim. Recognize logical fallacies.
Before Wednesday Review Chapter 18 Carefully read the Selection “The Border on Our Backs” (pp 517-518)