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Toulmin Argument Developing a Credible Argument. Claim Represents a controversial, debatable, and defendable position A CLAIM IS NOT –Merely an observation:

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Presentation on theme: "Toulmin Argument Developing a Credible Argument. Claim Represents a controversial, debatable, and defendable position A CLAIM IS NOT –Merely an observation:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Toulmin Argument Developing a Credible Argument

2 Claim Represents a controversial, debatable, and defendable position A CLAIM IS NOT –Merely an observation: Many teenagers obsess over their looks. –A question Why are people interested in maintaining their right to privacy?

3 Research Question & Claim YOU NEED A QUESTION to guide your search for sources. Sometimes your question will change as you learn more about your topic. Your question should become more focused and specific.

4 Reasons Expressed in enthymeme statements A claim needs reasons to convince the audience List reasons that support your claim –P. 127 Reasons come from –Experience, anecdotes, facts, Experts

5 Warrant/Assumptions Refers to those implied, often unexplored assumptions that make up the claim Most arguments have more than one warrant Effective arguments lists those warrants and addresses them to persuade the audience or to minimize the weakness of the argument

6 Evidence: Backing & Grounds Backing-supports the warrant Grounds-supports the claim The warrant has to be supported so that the claim can be argued

7 Backing & Grounds Use PATHOS, ETHOS, VALUES, AND LOGOS for backing the warrant and supporting the claim P. 134 Backing the warrant precedes the grounds used to support the claim

8 Qualifiers List p. 136 Used to limit and narrow the argument Using qualifiers steers the argument away from the hasty generalization fallacy

9 Conditions of Rebuttal Opposing viewpoints from the audience It’s arrogant to assume that your argument is self-evident and agreeable to everyone An argument reaches a new level of credibility when it addresses its opponent’s viewpoint and SUCCESSFULLY disproves it or complicates the point

10 Finding the Sources Begin to analyze arguments from your research sources using the Toulmin model. Test your paper using the Toulmin guidelines.


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