Presentation on theme: "When learning written argument, it is always helpful to observe how others."— Presentation transcript:
When learning written argument, it is always helpful to observe how others argue effectively or ineffectively. The Toulmin method, based on the work of philosopher Stephen Toulmin, is one way of analyzing a text that we read, with an eye toward responding to that particular argument (as in a writing assignment that asks us to respond) and, ultimately, toward analyzing and improving the arguments we ourselves make.
Toulmin’s Layout of Argumentation
The Claim (therefore, so, then …) The opinion which results from the data, or evidence. Our understanding of the meaning of the data
Qualifier (On the whole, usually, most of the time Indicates or signals that the claim is not absolute
Restriction (except when Indicates conditions which would make the claim totally invalid
Warrant (since, because) The reason(s) why our conclusion is valid. Definitions, experience, similarities to other systems, argument patterns.
Backing (on account of) Facts which authorize the warrant at the outset. Basic understandings of larger principles.