12 BondingSodium is a silver-colored metal that reacts so violently with water that flames are produced when sodium gets wet. Chlorine is a greenish-colored gas that is so poisonous that it was used as a weapon in World War I. When chemically bonded together, these two dangerous substances form sodium chloride, a compound so safe that we eat it every day - common table salt!=+
13 IONIC BOND: Bohr Method Bohr Model Method: Step 1: Draw the energy levels for each element Step 2: Show the arrow of transfer. There should be an arrow showing transfer for EACH electron given away. (Just like the top picture) Step 3: State the ions below each atomic structure to indicate that electrons have been gained or lost.
14 NaCl MgO IONIC BOND: Lewis Dot Structure Lewis Dot Method: Step 1: Write the symbol for each atom separately and show valence electrons (evenly spread out ) Step 2: No arrows. Write ions once transfer has taken place. Show electrons for the ORIGINAL outer shell (the one that gained will show electrons).Remember that ions are written as symbol with superscript.NaClMgO
16 COVALENT BOND: Bohr Model Bohr Model Method:Step 1: Draw the energylevels for each elementseparately.Step 2: Show the energylevels joined (similar tothe top picture)All diatomic elementsDemonstrate aCovalent bondRemember: BrINClHOF(Chlorine isshown to theright)
17 COVALENT BOND: Lewis Dot Structure Molecular formula Lewis Dot: Step 1: Draw the dot diagram for each element individually (use X and • for different atoms)Step 2: Draw the dot diagram for the compoundStep 3: Show the molecular formula (including lone electrons)Molecular formula
18 STATES OF MATTER Solid Liquid Gas Definite shape Shape of container No definite shapeDefinite volume Volume of container No def. volumeTightly packed May overlap Very spread outVibrate in place Move faster Very fast
19 CHANGES IN STATE2 types of Latent Heat = energy absorbed (stored) or releasedHeat of fusion = energy released; Gas to Liquid to SolidHeat of Vaporization = energy absorbed; Solid to Liquid to Gas
20 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Reactant Reactant Product Product Reactant Reactant 20
28 COHESION / ADHESION / CAPILLARITY Cohesion attracts molecules of the same kind (water to water) Adhesion attracts molecules of different kinds (tape and hair) Capillarity is the attraction of molecules allowing a liquid to rise
30 THE DISSOCIATION OF WATER Step 1: One water molecule bumps into another water moleculeStep 2: One of the water molecules dissociates (comes apart). When water dissociates, hydroxide ions (OH-) and a hydrogen ion (H+) are produced.
31 (Acid) (Base)---(Salt) (Water) If more hydroxide than hydrogen= BASE ACIDS / BASES Acidity / Alkalinity depends on the amount of hydronium atoms.HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O(Acid) (Base)---(Salt) (Water)If hydrogen=hydroxide =NEUTRALIf more hydrogen thanhydroxide = ACIDIf more hydroxide than hydrogen= BASE