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CHEMISTRY in Biology.

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Presentation on theme: "CHEMISTRY in Biology."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHEMISTRY in Biology

2 Composition of Matter Matter - Everything in universe is composed of matter Matter is anything that occupies space or has mass Mass – quantity of matter an object has Weight – pull of gravity on an object

3 Elements Pure substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter More than 100 elements (92 naturally occurring)

4 90% of the mass of an organism is composed of 4 elements (oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen)
Each element unique chemical symbol Consists of 1-2 letters First letter is always capitalized

5 Atoms The simplest particle of an element that retains all the properties of that element Properties of atoms determine the structure and properties of the matter they compose Our understanding of the structure of atoms based on scientific models, not observation

6 The Nucleus Central core
Consists of positive charged protons and neutral neutrons Positively charged Contains most of the mass of the atom

7 The Protons All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons Number of protons called the atomic number Number of protons balanced by an equal number of negatively charged electrons

8 The Neutrons The number varies slightly among atoms of the same element Different number of neutrons produces isotopes of the same element

9 Atomic Mass Protons & neutrons are found in the nucleus of an atom
Protons and neutrons each have a mass of 1 amu (atomic mass unit) The atomic mass of an atom is found by adding the number of protons & neutrons in an atom

10 The Electrons Negatively charged high energy particles with little or no mass Travel at very high speeds at various distances (energy levels) from the nucleus

11 Periodic Table Elements are arranged by their atomic number on the Periodic Table The horizontal rows are called Periods & tell the number of energy levels Vertical groups are called Families & tell the outermost number of electrons


13 Compounds Most elements do not exist by themselves
Readily combine with other elements in a predictable fashion

14 A compound is a pure substance made up of atoms of two or more elements
The proportion of atoms are always fixed Chemical formula shows the kind and proportion of atoms of each element that occurs in a particular compound

15 Molecules are the simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of the substance and exists in a free state Some molecules are large and complex

16 Chemical Formulas Subscript after a symbol tell the number of atoms of each element H20 has 2 atoms of hydrogen & 1 atom of oxygen Coefficients before a formula tell the number of molecules 3O2 represents 3 molecules of oxygen or (3x2) or 6 atoms of oxygen

17 The physical and chemical properties of a compound differ from the physical and chemical properties of the individual elements that compose it

18 The tendency of elements to combine and form compounds depends on the number and arrangement of electrons in their outermost energy level Atoms are most stable when their outer most energy level is filled

19 Most atoms are not stable in their natural state
Tend to react (combine) with other atoms in order to become more stable (undergo chemical reactions) In chemical reactions bonds are broken; atoms rearranged and new chemical bonds are formed that store energy

20 Covalent Bonds Formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

21 Ionic Bonds Some atoms become stable by losing or gaining electrons
Atoms that lose electrons are called positive ions

22 Atoms that gain electrons are called negative ions
Because positive and negative electrical charges attract each other ionic bonds form

23 Energy and Matter Energy The ability to do work or cause change
Occurs in various forms Can be converted to another form Forms important to biological systems are chemical, thermal, electrical and mechanical energy Free energy is the energy in a system that is available for work

24 States of Matter & KMT Atoms are in constant motion
The rate at which atoms or molecules in a substance move determines its state

25 Solid Molecules tightly linked together in a definite shape
Vibrate in place Fixed volume and shape

26 Liquids Molecules not as tightly linked as a solid
Maintain fixed volume Able to flow and conform to shape of container

27 Gas Molecules have little or no attraction to each other
Fill the volume of the occupied container Move most rapidly To cause a substance to change state, thermal energy (heat) must be added to or removed from a substance

28 Energy and Chemical Reactions
Living things undergo thousands of chemical reactions as part of the life process

29 Many are very complex involving multistep sequences called BIOCHEMICAL pathways
Chemical equations represent chemical reactions Reactants are shown on the left side of the equation Products are shown on the right side

30 The number of each kind of atom must be the same on either side of the arrow (equation must be balanced) Bonds may be broken or made forming new compounds

31 Energy Transfer Much of the energy organisms need is provided by sugar (food) Undergoes a series of chemical reactions in which energy is released (cell respiration) The net release of free energy is called an exergonic (exothermic) reaction

32 Reactions that involve a net absorption of free energy are called endergonic (endothermic) reactions
Photosynthesis is an example Most reactions in living organisms are exergonic; therefore living organisms require a constant source of energy

33 Most chemical reactions require energy to begin
The amount of energy needed to start the reaction is called activation energy

34 Certain chemical substances (catalysts) reduce the amount of activation energy required
Biological catalysts are called enzymes

35 Enzymes are an important class of catalysts in living organisms
Mostly protein Thousands of different kinds Each specific for a different chemical reaction

36 Enzyme Structure Enzymes work on substances called substrates
Substrates must fit into a place on an enzyme called the active site Enzymes are reusable!

37 Reduction-Oxidation Reactions
Many of the chemical reactions that help transfer energy in living organisms involve the transfer of electrons (reduction-oxidation = redox reactions)

38 Oxidation reaction – reactant loses electron(s) becoming more positive

39 Reduction reaction – reactant gains electron(s) becoming more negative

40 Solutions

41 Solutions A solution is a mixture in which 2 or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance

42 Solute is the substance dissolved in the solution
Particles may be ions, atoms, or molecules Solvent is the substance in which the solute is dissolved Water is the universal solvent

43 Solutions can be composed of varying proportions of a given solute in a given solvent --- vary in concentration (measurement of the amount of solute) A saturated solution is one in which no more solute can be dissolved Aqueous solution (water) are universally important to living things

44 Dissociation of water Breaking apart of the water molecule into two ions of opposite charge (due to strong attraction of oxygen atom of one molecule for H atom of another water molecule) H2O  H+ (hydrogen ion) + OH- (hydroxide ion) H+ + H2O  H3O (hydronium ion)

45 Acids and Bases One of the most important aspects of a living system is the degree of acidity or alkalinity

46 Acids Number of hydronium ions in solutions is greater than the number of hydroxide ions HCl  H+ + Cl-

47 Bases Number of hydroxide ions in solution is greater than the number of hydronium ions NaOH  Na+ + OH-

48 pH Scale logarithmic scale for comparing the relative concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution ranges from 0 to 14 Each pH is 10X stronger than next e.g. ph 1 is 10 times stronger than ph 2

49 the lower the pH the stronger the acid
the higher the pH the stronger the base pH 7.0 is neutral

50 Buffers Control of pH is very important
Most enzymes function only within a very narrow pH Control is accomplished with buffers made by the body Buffers keep a neutral pH (pH 7)

51 Buffers neutralize small amounts of either an acid or base added to a solution
Complex buffering systems maintain the pH values of your body’s many fluids at normal and safe levels

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