2 Chemical Reactions Chapter 9 Section 1 Forming New SubstancesChemical Reactionschemical reaction is a process in which one or more substances change to make one or more new substances.NEW SUBSTANCE-chemical /physical properties that form in a chemical reaction differ from those of the original substances.
3 Chemical Reactions, continued Chapter 9Section 1 Forming New SubstancesChemical Reactions, continuedSigns OF chemical reactioncolor changeformation of a gas or a solidthe release or absorption of energy.Precipitate- solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution
4 Chapter 9Chemical ReactionsPrecipitatePLAY VIDEO
5 Chemical Reactions, continued Chapter 9Section 1 Forming New SubstancesChemical Reactions, continuedSIGNALS OFthey do not always guarantee that a reaction is happening.most important sign - formation of new substances that have new properties.
6 Bonds: Holding Molecules Together chemical bond -is a force that holds two atoms together in a molecule.For a chemical reaction to take placeChemical bonds MUST BREAK(in starting substance)Atoms rearrangenew bonds form make new substances
8 Reactions and Energy Chapter 9 Energy Section 1 Forming New SubstancesReactions and EnergyEnergybreaks chemical bondsAs new bonds form energy is releasedexothermic reaction- chemical reaction in which energy is releasedcan give off energy in several forms
9 Reactions and Energy, continued Chapter 9Section 1 Forming New SubstancesReactions and Energy, continuedendothermic reaction- chemical reaction in which energy is taken inenergy taken in is absorbed from the surroundings.Ex: Photosynthesis
10 Reactions and Energy, continued Chapter 9Section 1 Forming New SubstancesReactions and Energy, continuedNeither mass nor energy can becreated or destroyed in chemical reactions.law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can change from one form to another (TRANSFER)
11 Law of Conservation of Energy Chapter 9Chemical ReactionsLaw of Conservation of Energy
12 Questions???The formation of water from its elements may be represented as follows:2H2 + O2 2H2OWhat elements are present in water?Hydrogen and OxygenHow many atoms of each element are shown in the reactants?4-H; 2-OHow many atoms of each element are shown in the products?
13 The representation 2H2 + O2 2H2O is called a chemical equation The representation 2H2 + O2 2H2O is called a chemical equation. Why do you think that the numbers of atoms do not change?
14 What You Will Learn Chapter 9 Section 2 Chemical Formulas and EquationsChapter 9What You Will LearnChemical formulas are a simple way to describe which elements are in a chemical substance.Chemical equations are a concise way to write how atoms are rearranged in a chemical reaction.A balanced chemical equation shows the law of conservation of mass.
15 Chemical Formulas Chapter 9 Section 2 Chemical Formulas and EquationsChapter 9Chemical Formulaschemical formula- is a combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance.shows how many atoms of each kind of element are present in a molecule.Subscript- is a number written below and to the right of a chemical symbol in a formula.
17 Chemical Formulas, continued Section 2 Chemical Formulas and EquationsChapter 9Chemical Formulas, continuedcovalent compounds -written by using the prefixes in the names of the compounds.ionic compounds- written by using enough of each ion so that the overall charge is 0.
19 Chemical Equations Chapter 9 Section 2 Chemical Formulas and EquationsChapter 9Chemical Equationschemical equation- uses chemical formulas, chemical symbols, and coefficients to describe a reaction.Reactants-starting materials in a chemical reactionProducts-substances formed from a reaction are
20 Chemical Equations, continued Section 2 Chemical Formulas and EquationsChapter 9Chemical Equations, continuedwriting a chemical equationMust be balancing –total number of atoms of each element in the reactants must equal the total number of atoms of that element in the products#reactants=#products
22 Chemical Equations, continued Section 2 Chemical Formulas and EquationsChapter 9Chemical Equations, continuedlaw of conservation of mass -states that mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes.This law means that the total mass of the reactants is the same as the total mass of the products.
23 Law of Conservation of Mass Chapter 9Chemical ReactionsLaw of Conservation of Mass
24 Chemical Equations, continued Section 2 Chemical Formulas and EquationsChapter 9Chemical Equations, continuedA coefficient is a number that is placed in front of a chemical symbol or formula.Coefficients are used to balance an equation.For an equation to be balanced, all atoms must be counted.
25 Chemical Equations, continued Section 2 Chemical Formulas and EquationsChapter 9Chemical Equations, continuedTo count all the atoms in an equation, multiply the subscript of each element in the formula by the formula’s coefficient.To balance an equation, change the coefficients—not the subscripts.Changing the subscripts in the formula of a compound changes the compound.
26 Section 2 Chemical Formulas and Equations Chapter 9Look at the following formulas for chemical compounds, and identify the elements in each formula. NaCl KBr C12H22O11 NH3 SiF4 Fe(NO3)3 H2O2 MgSO4 What is the name and symbol of each element? How many atom of each element are present in each compound?
27 Balancing Chemical Equations A chemical equation describes what happens in a chemical reaction.The equation identifiesreactants (starting materials)and products (resulting substance),the formulas of the participants,the phases of the participants (solid, liquid, gas),and the amount of each substance.
28 Balancing a chemical equation refers to establishing the mathematical relationship between the quantity of reactants and products.quantities are expressed as grams or moles.
29 Write the unbalanced equation. 3 steps to the process:Write the unbalanced equation.Chemical formulas of reactants are listed on the lefthand side of the equation.Products are listed on the righthand side of the equation.Reactants and products are separated by putting an arrow between them to show the direction of the reaction. Reactions at equilibrium will have arrows facing both directions.Balance the equation.Apply the Law of Conservation of Mass to get the same number of atoms of every element on each side of the equation. Tip: Start by balancing an element that appears in only one reactant and product.Once one element is balanced, proceed to balance another, and another, until all elements are balanced.Balance chemical formulas by placing coefficients in front of them. Do not add subscripts, because this will change the formulas.Indicate the states of matter of the reactants and products.Use (g) for gaseous substances.Use (s) for solids.Use (l) for liquids.Use (aq) for species in solution in water.Write the state of matter immediately following the formula of the substance it describes.
30 Example ProblemTin oxide is heated with hydrogen gas to form tin metal and water vapor. Write the balanced equation that describes this reaction.Write the unbalanced equation.SnO2 + H2 → Sn + H2O
31 Balance the equation 1.Count the atoms- 2. Balance them out- Look at the equation and see which elements are not balanced.there are two oxygen atoms on the lefthand side of the equation and only one on the righthand side.2. Balance them out-Correct by putting a coefficient of 2 in front of water:SnO2 + H2 → Sn + 2 H2O
32 2. Balance other elements- This puts the hydrogen atoms out of balance.Now there are two hydrogen atoms on the left and four hydrogen atoms on the right.To get four hydrogen atoms on the right, add a coefficient of 2 for the hydrogen gas.Remember, coefficients are multipliers, so if we write 2 H2O it denotes 2x2=4 hydrogen atoms and 2x1=2 oxygen atoms.SnO2 + 2 H2 → Sn + 2 H2O
33 The equation is now balanced. Be sure to double-check your math!Each side of the equation has 1 atom of Sn, 2 atoms of O, and 4 atoms of H.SnO2(s) + 2 H2(g) → Sn(s) + 2 H2O(g)
34 Indicate the physical states of the reactants and products Indicate the physical states of the reactants and products. To do this, you need to be familiar with the properties of various compounds or you need to be told what the phases are for the chemicals in the reaction. Oxides are solids, hydrogen forms a diatomic gas, tin is a solid, and the term 'water vapor' indicates that water is in the gas phase:SnO2(s) + 2 H2(g) → Sn(s) + 2 H2O(g)This is the balanced equation for the reaction.
35 In addition to notes… you need Balance equationsHow is the law of conservation of energy true for both endothermic/exothermic reactions?What happens to bonds in chemical reaction?As a solution of water and sugar dries, a crystal forms on the end of a string that is suspended in the solution. Is this an example of a chemical reaction? Explain.
36 Concept Map Energy is always 1)___________ in 2)___________.. Which are classified as 3)___________if energy is 4)________________ and stored in 5)____________such as in photosynthesis.Which are classified as 6)___________ if energy is 7)____________ from 8)__________ such as in burning wood.
37 Potential vocab for CM (five words won’t be used) AbsorbedChemical equationsBalancedEndothermicConservedPhotosynthesisReleasedProductsExothermicReactantsFiveChemical bondsprogress
38 Vocabulary Precipitate Reactants Chemical reaction Exothermic reaction Chemical equationEndothermic reactionChemical formulaLaw of conservation of energyChemical bondsCoefficientDiatomic moleculeSubscriptYield signProduct
39 NEED TO KNOW Chemical reaction Chemical equations Diagram What is an example of one?What happens to the bondsChemical equationsHow to balanceWhy must be balancedDiagramActivation energyEnergy absorbedEnergy releasedExothermic/endothermic reaction