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Al-Qaeda and their effects on U.S. military strategy By Mike Nahmias.

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1 al-Qaeda and their effects on U.S. military strategy By Mike Nahmias

2 About al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda is Arabic for The Base Also known as al-Qaida and al-Qa'ida Created in 1988 in Afghanistan Led by Osama bin Laden who is rich Now is more of an ideological movement Is a decentralized organization Motives Practice a form of Islamic extremism Most Muslim scholars and clerics reject it They want to impose their radical beliefs on everyone Want to rid Muslim countries of Western influence, and ultimately destroy Western countries altogether Want to kill all Christians and Jews Doesnt matter whether youre a woman, child, civilian, or in the military

3 Successful Attacks February 26, 1993 First bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City by al-Qaeda October 3- 4, 1993 Battle of Mogadishu in Somalia U.S. Special Forces fought against al-Qaeda- trained enemies November 13, 1995 Al-Qaeda bombs the National Guard Communications Centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia June 25, 1996 Khobar Towers are bombed, which was a U.S. military housing complex in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia August 7, 1998 Two U.S. embassies are bombed in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar al Salaam, Tanzania October 12, 2000 The USS Cole is bombed in the port of Aden, Yemen September 11, commercial airplanes are hijacked and crashed: 2 into the World Trade Center, 1 in the Pentagon, & the last crashed in Pennsylvania

4 Differences Between al-Qaeda & The Taliban al-Qaeda Operates all around the globe Doesnt have a central location Leader is Osama bin Laden Taliban Only active in & around Afghanistan Leader is Mohammed Omar Originate from Kandahar Province, Afghanistan The strict, ruthless governing force in Afghanistan Came to power in 1996 during the Afghan Civil War United States is fighting both al-Qaeda and the Taliban in the Middle East Taliban are in the way of us getting to al- Qaeda and wont hand them over Both work together and support one another Similarities

5 War on Terror Al-Qaedas attack on 9/11 started Americas War on Terrorism with the help of NATO forces and other countries 136 countries offered military assistance Four, main U.S. policies: Make no deals with terrorists Bring terrorists to justice for their crimes Force states that promote terrorism to change their ways Strengthen the countries that are supporting the U.S. Greatly increased national security Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, but it does not end there. It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped and defeated. (Bush)

6 In almost every area where there is fighting there are villages with locals Insurgents use these villages to their advantage by blending in with locals They also stand near civilians so coalition forces arent able to attack, even if being shot at Because there are so many locals, anti-terrorist forces usually arent allowed to attack anyone unless they are shooting at them, are armed, or have a radio A big part of the war is obtaining local support from locals and village elders This is done by: Giving them medical aid Supplying food and water Protecting them from the Taliban Not killing any locals Killing less locals than our enemies By obtaining support coalition forces can receive intel on where the enemy is, their plans, and who exactly were supposed to be fighting Having civilians support coalition forces will also stop them from helping out the insurgents Involvement of Civilians

7 U.S. Marines meeting with elders in Marja, Afghanistan

8 Lots of deserts, valleys, and mountains as well as strong winds and storms Takes away U.S. ability to use things like tanks and whole armies in many areas Special Forces are used a lot Air support is used more U.S. started to use drones again because of their ease of mobility Some are only used for surveillance and others are equipped with rockets and bombs Not incredibly effective; for every intended target, 50 unintended targets are killed Native to insurgents Much more mobile that coalition forces Carry only guns and ammo Are used to the harsh environments Know the areas very well Mostly unfamiliar to coalition forces Insurgents use the location of Afghanistan and places like the Korengal Valley to their advantage Many attack U.S. soldiers and then flee across the border into Pakistan Terrain

9 U.S. soldiers in Kunar province, Afghanistan

10 Since the Taliban regime has been overthrown coalition forces have to help put a new government into effect like in Iraq after Hussein was taken down from power Support for the locals also has to be given The nations army has to be recruited and trained The Afghan National Army (ANA) So they can take over land-based operations A hard task because many are either highly undisciplined or corrupt Government Reconstruction American soldiers training ANA soldiers ANA emblem

11 Bibliography "22civilian_CA0-articleLarge." Afghans Voice Their Fears Amid Marja Campaign. Web. 9 Jun "911." Iconic Photos. Web. 8 Jun "Afghan National Army Emblem." Afghan National Army. Web. 9 Jun Al-Qaeda." Al Qaeda: The Global Brand. Web. 9 Jun Al-Qaida.", 15 August Web. 23 May " Afghan army could take lead in 2 to 4 Years. Web. 9 Jun Bajoria, Jayshree, and Greg Bruno. "al-Qaeda (a.k.a. al-Qaida, al-Qa'ida)." Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations, 30 Dec Web. 2 Jun Bin Laden, Osama. "Bin Laden: 'Your security is in your own hands'." CNN. Cable News Network LP, LLLP., 29 October Web. 23 May Bush, George W. "Transcript of President Bush's address." CNN. Cable News Network LP, LLLP., 20 Sep Web. 2 Jun "Flag of al-Qaeda." Al-Qaeda October surprise. Web. 9 Jun

12 Bibliography Continued "George W Bush." Web. 8 Jun Kaplan, Eben. "The Rise of al-Qaedaism." Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations, 18 Jul Web. 9 Jun McCloud, Kimberley A. "Al-Qaeda and the Reach of Terror." History Behind the Headlines: The Origins of Conflicts Worldwide. Ed. Nancy Matuszak. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale Group, Discovering Collection. Gale. Lucy Robbins Welles Library. 9 June 2010 . O'Connell, Mary Ellen. "Flying blind: U.S. Combat drones operate outside international law." America 15 Mar. 2010: 10+.Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Web. 9 June "Operation Enduring Freedom." U.S. Army Center of Military History. U.S. Army Center of Military History, 17 Mar Web. 9 Jun "Patterns of Global Terrorism 2001." U.S. Department of State. U.S. Department of State, n.d. Web. 23 May Rainow, Peter. "The United States vs. Terror: A New Kind of War." History Behind the Headlines: The Origins of Conflicts Worldwide. Ed. Nancy Matuszak. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale Group, Discovering Collection. Gale. Lucy Robbins Welles Library. 23 May . "Taliban Flag." Women's Life. Web. 8 Jun "US Army Afghanistan 2006." War in Afghanistan (2001–present). Web. 9 Jun

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