Presentation on theme: "American Response to the Looming Threat of a Second World War Responses to the growing power of dictators TONIGHT: Read up through page 750 (we will discuss."— Presentation transcript:
American Response to the Looming Threat of a Second World War Responses to the growing power of dictators TONIGHT: Read up through page 750 (we will discuss the entirety of the homefront effort on Monday). Then, fighting, atomic bomb, begin post-war discussion
What does this cartoon suggest about American policy towards Europe’s problems in the early 1930’s?
Background Context Washington Naval Conference (1922) Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) Good Neighbor Policy (1930-1934) German, Italian, and Japanese alliances Soviet Union and Germany sign Non- Aggression Pact
US Legislates Neutral Isolationism Hitler institutes universal training and denounces Versailles Treaty and Mussolini invades Italy and Somaliland Spanish Civil War Japanese invade China Neutrality Act of 1935 – arms embargo, discretionary travel restrictions Neutrality Act of 1936 – ban on loans to belligerents Neutrality Act of 1937 – mandates the above, not discretionary NOW COME BACK TO THE CAUSES OF WWI – WHY DID FDR DO THIS?
Attempts to stop German Expansion Munich Conference Agreement (1938): Germany, Britain, Italy, and Hitler allow Hitler to take Sudetenland (was it even theirs?)
What is this cartoon saying about the Munich Conference?
Differing Viewpoints Charles Lindbergh was part of the “America First Movement” What does this cartoon say about this movement?
Non-Neutral Isolationism *technically still called a “neutrality act” Germany Invades Poland and WWII officially begins Neutrality Act of 1939 Called: Cash and Carry It allowed European Democracies to pay cash for war goods … as long as these democracies carried the goods on their own boats CONSIDER GW’S ADVICE REGARDING ENTANGLING ALLIANCES.
War Continues … America Changes Policy: Non-Neutral Isolationism Hitler’s success continues – Germany was well prepared for war Evacuation of Dunkirk –Allied troops flee … literally leaving equipment behind Manhattan Project is created Hitler turns his attention to Britain, Battle of Britain is running out of $ Cash and Carry cannot continue FDR passes the Lend Lease Agreement
Lend Lease Agreement – US becomes the Arsenal of Democracy Lend Lease allowed the US to “lend” war goods to Britain in exchange for Britain “leasing” some strategic naval bases to the US FDR’s rhetoric gained support for this program FDR compared Lend Lease to loaning your neighbor your garden hose to put out a fire at his/her house Think back to what you know about the fireside chats… Would you ever loan someone gum?
Protecting the Arsenal of Democracy FDR said the US was defending the Four Democratic Freedoms without entering the war freedom of speech and expression freedom of worship freedom of want freedom of fear
Lend Lease in Actuality Lend Lease assists Allies without drawing the US into the war US protects ships to Iceland, no further Criticism that none of the loaned goods were reaching their destinations because many were sunk
Curious Non-War War Measures PEACETIME WAR MEASURES Selective Service Act (Sep 1940) A peacetime draft? – wasn’t it peacetime still? Why did the US need this if it was isolated and neutral? Atlantic Charter (Aug 1941) - Churchill and FDR Planned strategy for WWII Created a post-war plan –BUT THE US WASN’T EVEN IN THE WAR YET!
WHY DID THE JAPANESE ATTACK PEARL HARBOR? Pearl Harbor was not the first attack on US ships Panay – 1937 – Japan bombs this ship Japan pays quick reparations…nothing else happens Reuben James is sunk– 1941 – US soldiers die escorting ships to Britain Most people paid no attention…Woodie Guthrie did
Pearl Harbor’s History Japan counted on US to provide necessary resources for war In response to Japanese invasion of China, US freezes Japanese assets and stops trading oil, scrap metal, etc Japan is not pleased Japan attacks Pearl Harbor Which some people say FDR knew about –Having information and using it wisely are very different
Pearl Harbor Statistics More than 2,403 die – Arizona 19 ships sunk or damaged 188 planes Dec 8, 1941 congress declares war on Japan unanimous in Senate and in House only one dissenting vote (Jeanette Rankin) Triggers US involvement in Europe as well
DON’T FORGET THE MAJOR CHANGES IN AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY AND WHY THEY SHIFT!!!
Look at your Economic Indicators Charts and Stats Explain the meaning of these 4 charts based on what you now know.