2DefinitionsTotalitarian – Usually a single individual who controls a country and its governmentDictator- A person or group of people who completely control a country through its governmentNazi- A member of the German Nationalist Social Worker’s PartyFascism-a form of government that believes the state is more important than the individual, maintains control of the economy and suppresses opposition controlled by a dictatorIN ALL CASES THE LEADER(S) TAKE CONTROL AND MAINTAIN CONTROL THROUGH FORCE
31. Totalitarian Leaders in Europe Adolph Hitler - GermanyBenito Mussolini- ItalyHideki Tojo - Japan
4Why were they able to gain control? After WWI people blamed their governments for the hardships they faced.Many nations were experiencing political and social unrest.As a result totalitarian regimes that restricted personal freedoms and prohibited political opposition rose to power based on their promises to make things better.They are usually very charismatic and easily get the people to follow them.
52.Japanese Invade Manchuria 1931 Japan trying to establish a sphere of influence thereUS responds by placing economic sanctions on them – we withheld trade of oil, iron, and steel.The League told them to stop but Japan ignored them and resigned from the League.The League of Nations does NOTHING!
6Japanese Invade China 1937Later extend occupation of Indochina (now Vietnam).
71937 into China and starts WWII in Asia 1931 into Manchuria1937 into China and starts WWII in Asia1937, U.S. refuses trade with Japan until they withdraw from China…..1940 invades IndochinaUS froze Japanese assets, refused to trade oil, gasoline and steel.
8Hitler and FDRBoth come into office in 1933 in the midst of the economic and social upheaval of the Great Depression.FDR tells Americans, “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself”Hitler takes the approach that the Jews are the source of all Germany’s economic and political problems.
9How Does Hitler Justify His Actions? He says they are in response to the punishment placed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles. – Makes the Germans believe they had been done wrong.As a result, the rest of Europe appeases him.They give their inch and he takes mile after mile. The more they give in the more he takes.
10What was appeasement?In 1935 Britain signed the naval agreement with Germany.For the next three years, Britain and France followed a policy of giving Hitler what he wanted-a policy that became known as APPEASEMENT.
11Munich AgreementAgreement signed between England, France, and Germany.Hitler asked for the Sudentenland to be returned to Germany and that would be all he would ask for.The problem – Hitler had no intention of honoring his word.
12LANDMARKS OF APPEASEMENT 1933-Germany leave the L of N - start to rearm in secret1935-Anglo-German Naval Agreement, Abyssinian Crisis, German announces conscription.1936- Remilitarization of the Rhineland1938 (March) Anschluss1938 (Sept) Sudetenland crisis and the Munich agreement1939- Germany take over the rest of Czechoslovakia1939 Britain and France abandon appeasement and guarantee to defend Poland
13Why US Neutrality Acts? Americans want to remain isolationist Needed to respond in some way to help our allies who were the targets of Fascist aggression in EuropeLeague of Nations is too weak to do anything.England and France are appeasing Hitler but the US realizes he’s only getting worse.
14NEUTRALITY ACTS1935: prohibited arms shipments to all belligerent countries.1936: forbid loans to all belligerents1937: “Cash and Carry” principle: all nations must pay for nonmilitary purchases and ship the goods in their own vesselsNeutral
15What Attempts Are Made to Put A Stop to Hitler’s Actions? Munich Pact
16NEUTRALITY ACTS1939: prohibited Americans from traveling on ships of belligerent nations1940: Lend Lease program offered to Great Britain…. U.S. becomes the “arsenal of democracy”FDR responds to Fascist aggression in Europe by protecting democracies and preparing the US for war…..Neutral
18NEUTRALITY ACTS1939: prohibited Americans from traveling on ships of belligerent nations1940: Lend Lease program offered to Great Britain…. U.S. becomes the “arsenal of democracy”FDR responds to Fascist aggression in Europe by protecting democracies and preparing the US for war…..Neutral
19AMERICAN NEUTRALITY Americans wanted to remain neutral. America First CommitteeCommittee to Defend America by Aiding the AlliesFeb. 21, 1940: If Germany is defeating England & France, should the U.S. declare war on Germany and send our Army and Navy to Europe to fight against Hitler? Yes: 23% No 77%Neutral
20LEND LEASERENTING, LEASING, GIVING BRITAIN AND LATER SOVIET UNION AND CHINA, MILITARY WEAPONS TO ARM THEM AGAINST THE GERMANS AND JAPANESE…FDR’s FINAL ATTEMPT TO REMAIN NEUTRAL!USA BECOMES THE “ARSENAL OF DEMOCRACY”LEND LEASE
21U. S. Lend-Lease Act, 1941, “ US becomes the arsenal of democracy” Great Britain $31 billion Soviet Union $11 billion France $ 3 billion China $1.5 billion Other European $500 million South America $400 million The amount totaled: $48,601,365,000
22Japanese Attack Pearl Harbor December 11, 1941US had placed an embargo on war goods so that Japan could not purchase themThe Japanese felt if they attacked the US hard enough, we would back off and let Japan control