Presentation on theme: "AP US HISTORY UNIT 11: WORLD WAR II AND COLD WAR Pre-World War II."— Presentation transcript:
AP US HISTORY UNIT 11: WORLD WAR II AND COLD WAR Pre-World War II
American Isolation During the Great Depression the United States prerogative was to remain neutral and take care of our nation at home. “Every man (country) for himself” mentality. No matter what happens abroad, we are going to stay neutral and dig ourselves out of the depression.
Reopening Trade One of the main causes of the Great Depression was the high tariff on imported goods which stopped world trade. Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934 We will lower our tariffs if other nations will lower theirs. 21 nations agree to this by the end of 1939
Trouble Brewing in Europe and Far East Totalitarianism spreads in Europe in the midst of the world-wide depression. Soviet Union (USSR): Joseph Stalin 1936 Italy: Benito Mussolini 1922 Germany: Adolf Hitler: 1933 Takes over power for the Nazi party In 1935 institutes compulsory military service Spain: General Francisco Franco: 1936-1939 With the help of Hitler and Mussolini Imperialist Japan looks to spread rule in Asia over China Totalitarianism: absolute control by the state or a governing branch of a highly centralized institution. (aka. dictatorship)
Birds of a feather…. Rome-Berlin Axis 1936 Hitler and Mussolini alliance Japan later joins Germany and Italy in the Tri-Partite Pact in 1940. All of these new alliances in the eastern hemisphere further drove the United States toward favoring isolationism.
Staying Isolated Johnson Debt Default Act: 1934 Nations already in debt to United States cannot borrow any more from the United States. In the 1930’s the munitions manufacturers take the blame for the United States' intervention in WWI. The idea of stopping production of arms and munitions in the United States would stop our getting sucked in to wars abroad.
Neutrality Legislation Neutrality Acts 1935, 1936, 1937 When the President, not the media, acknowledges a foreign war, certain restrictions will go into place. No Americans are permitted to be on “belligerent” ships, sell/transport war supplies to “belligerent” nations, or provide loans to “belligerent” nations. Belligerent = hostile, going to war, aggressive These were designed to keep the United States out of a conflict similar to World War I.
American Heads in the Sand… The United States began to close its eyes to hostilities in Europe We refused to become entangled into helping other democratic or republic nations. We wouldn’t acknowledge the aggressors or the victims. Without the threat of United States intervention, totalitarianism was able to spread like wildfire. “When you ignore the weeds, they’ll continue to grow”.
Germany on the Move In Europe As a strategy to keep the Soviets from intervening on their conquests in Europe, Germany offers a non- aggression pact with Stalin and the Soviets. In August 1939 the Hitler- Stalin Pact was created. This meant that Germany could make war on Western Democratic European nations without the threat of Soviet intervention. Hitler’s next move was to take the land back from Poland that they lost after WWI.
World War II Begins Poland refuses to give the land back. Germany responds by invading Poland on September 1, 1939. Germany’s strategy was known as “Blitzkrieg” which means ‘lightening war’. They stopped the mobilization of the Polish forces and evacuation of people by bombing the bridges and roads. They bombed the Polish Air Force before they could leave the ground. Great Britain and France both declare war on Germany in defense of Poland.
“Un-neutral Neutrality” In 1939-1941 the United States remained neutral. Well….sort of. We supplied the Allies in the war with war supplies in what was known as the “Lend-lease Act”. The lend-lease act provided a way for the United States to provide supplies to the Allies without officially entering the war and the US from having to give out loans. The idea was that the Allies would “give back” the war supplies when finished with them or replace them if they were ruined. The factories were turned back on and manufacturing of war supplies began….the end of our Great Depression! FDR compared the “Lend-Lease Act” to allowing a neighbor to borrow a garden hose whose house was on fire.