Presentation on theme: "Classification Candidates should be able to:"— Presentation transcript:
1Classification Candidates should be able to: (a) define the terms classification, phylogeny and taxonomy;(b) explain the relationship between classification and phylogeny;(c) describe the classification of species into the taxonomic hierarchy of domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species;(d) outline the characteristic features of the following five kingdoms: Prokaryotae (Monera), Protoctista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia;(e) outline the binomial system of nomenclature and the use of scientific (Latin) names for species;(f) use a dichotomous key to identify a group of at least six plants, animals or microorganisms;(g) discuss the fact that classification systems were based originally on observable features but more recent approaches draw on a wider range of evidence to clarify relationships between organisms, including molecular evidence (HSW1, 7a);(h) compare and contrast the five kingdom and three domain classification systems (HSW4, 7a, 7b).
2Key TermsClassification: The process of placing living things into groups- the detailed study of the individuals in a speciesPhylogeny: the study of how closely different species are relatedTaxonomy: the study of the principles behind classification (the differences between species). These differences can be used to classify species.
3PhylogenyThe more closely two species are related, the closer they appear on the evolutionary tree and the more recently they shared a common ancestor
4The Current System of Classification The current system uses eight taxa:DomainKingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies
6Five KingdomsTraditionally, all living things have been grouped into a number of kingdoms- this used to be two- plants and animals, but not all living things can fit into these two categories, so it is now 5Prokaryotes, protoctists, fungi, plants, animals
7Prokaryotes No nucleus Loop of DNA that is not arranged in linear proteins (not associated with histone proteins- Histones are the major structural proteins of chromosomes)No membrane bound organellesSmall ribosomesCarry out respiration in special membrane systems called mesosomesHave smaller cells than eukaryotesMay be free living, parasitic, or cause disease
8Protoctists All are eukaryotes Mostly single celled Have a variety of formsShow plant or animal like featuresMostly free livingHave autotrophic (photosynthesis) or heterotrophic (ingesting prey or extracellular enzymes) nutritionIt is sometimes referred to as the dustbin group as they have features that do not belong in any other kingdom
9FungiAre eukaryotesHave a mycelium (a network of strands called hyphae)Have walls made of chitin (not cellulose)Have a multinucleate cytoplasm (more than one nucleus)Are mostly free living and saprophytic (cause decay of organic matter)
10Plants Eukaryotes Multicellular Have a cellulose cell wall Produce multicellular embryos from fertilised eggsHave autotrophic nutrition (carry out photosynthesis)
11Animals Are eukaryotes Are multicellular Have heterotrophic nutrition (eat other organisms, digest and absorb them)Have fertilised eggs that develop into a ball of cells called a blastulaCan usually move around
12Classifying a SpeciesA species means a group of organisms that can breed together to produce fertile offspringCarl Linnaeus devised a system of naming living organisms that uses two names- called the binomial systemBefore this, scientists used to use long, detailed descriptions or a common name, however this did not work well because:The same organisms had different names in different parts of the countryTranslation of languages may give different namesThe same common name may be used for different species in other parts of the world
13The Binomial SystemLatin is a universal language so species are given a universal nameAll scientists around the world will use the same nameBinomial means ‘two names’, the first name is for the genus, the second is for the species e.g. Homo sapiens- Homo is the genus, sapiens is the speciesThe genus name always starts with a capital letterIt is always used in a way that makes it stand out- if typed, it is in italics, and if written it is underlined.
15Identifying Organisms Before you collect a species sample, you must check it will not harm the environmentYou would first have to carry out an EIA- Environmental impact assessmentScientists need to know what species are present, if they are rare, and if habitat destruction would have a large impactFor example: a pond that contains great crested newts must not be harmed, as it is protected under the wildlife and countryside act it is illegal to catch, possess handle, cause death, harm or disturb them
16Using a KeyA dichotomous key is a way of identifying organisms you have foundIt is based on questions and answers- usually yes or noThe answer to each question leads to a different question and finally the name of the specimenA good dichotomous key has one question fewer than the number of species it can identify
18You must make sure you know how to use a dichotomous key to identify a group of at least six plants, animals or microorganisms
19Ancient Classification Early classification was based on observable features, so was limited to what you could seeIn the 17th century (1600s), they had microscopes to help so they could see cellsAristotle (384BC) based his observation on appearance and anatomy he said organisms were either plant or animal, then he further classified them into three groups, those that: live and move in water, live and move on land and move through the airUnfortunately, this meant that he grouped fish with turtles, birds with insects and mammals with frogs.Classification is now more accurate as more research has been carried out.
20Modern Classification Originally, one celled organisms that were plant like were classified with plants and animal like ones classified with animals, but some unicellular organisms have features of both animal and plant, also there was the problem with fungi having hyphae and not carrying out photosynthesis.This is why we now have the 5 kingdom classification, however there are now even more ways of classifying organisms…
21BiochemistryCertain large biochemical molecules are found in all living things, but they may not be identical in all living thingsThis can be used to show evolutionary relationships and how closely related species are to one another
22Cytochrome C Cytochrome C is a protein used in respiration All living organisms except chemosynthetic prokaryotes must respire, so must have Cytochrome CCytochrome C is not identical in all species- it is a protein made from amino acids, and some of the amino acid sequences differ between species.If the amino acid sequence is the same, the two species must be closely related, the more differences there are, the less the species is related
23DNA All organisms use DNA or RNA Comparisons of DNA sequences provides a way to classify speciesThe more similar the sequence, the more closely related the speciesWe can use this to clarify or correct evolutionary relationships that we are unsure about
24Three DomainsIn 1990, Carl Woese suggested a new classification system based on RNAHe divided the kingdom Prokaryote into two: the bacteria (Eubacteria) and the Archaeae (Archaebacteria)He said that Bacteria have: a different cell membrane structure, different flagella, different enzymes for building RNA, no proteins bound to their genetic material and different DNA replication mechanismsHe also said Archaea share features with eukaryotes e.g. similar enzymes for building RNA, similar DNA replication mechanisms and production of the same proteins that bind to DNAWoese suggested that the differences between Archaeae and Eubacteria are greater than the differences between Eukaryotes and bacteria- this is now widely accepted by biologists