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1 Classification. 2 There are 13 billion known species of organisms There are 13 billion known species of organisms This is only 5% of all organisms that.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Classification. 2 There are 13 billion known species of organisms There are 13 billion known species of organisms This is only 5% of all organisms that."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Classification

2 2 There are 13 billion known species of organisms There are 13 billion known species of organisms This is only 5% of all organisms that ever lived!!!!! This is only 5% of all organisms that ever lived!!!!! New organisms are still being found and identified New organisms are still being found and identified Species of Organisms

3 3 What is Classification? Classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities Classification is also known as taxonomy Taxonomists are scientists that identify & name organisms

4 4 Benefits of Classifying Accurately & uniformly names organisms Accurately & uniformly names organisms Prevents misnomers such as starfish & jellyfish that aren't really fish Prevents misnomers such as starfish & jellyfish that aren't really fish Uses same language (Latin or some Greek) for all names Uses same language (Latin or some Greek) for all names Seahorse??

5 5 Confusion in Using Different Languages for Names

6 6 Latin Names are Understood by all Taxonomists

7 7 Early Taxonomists 2000 years ago, Aristotle was the first taxonomist 2000 years ago, Aristotle was the first taxonomist Aristotle divided organisms into plants & animals Aristotle divided organisms into plants & animals He subdivided them by their habitat ---land, sea, or air dwellers He subdivided them by their habitat ---land, sea, or air dwellers

8 8 Early Taxonomists John Ray, a botanist, was the first to use Latin for naming John Ray, a botanist, was the first to use Latin for naming His names were very long descriptions telling everything about the plant His names were very long descriptions telling everything about the plant

9 9 Carolus Linnaeus 1707 – 1778 18th century taxonomist Classified organisms by their structure Developed naming system still used today

10 10 Carolus Linnaeus Called the Father of Taxonomy Called the Father of Taxonomy Developed the modern system of naming known as binomial nomenclature Developed the modern system of naming known as binomial nomenclature Two-word name (Genus & species) Two-word name (Genus & species)

11 11 Standardized Naming Binomial nomenclature used Binomial nomenclature used Genus species Genus species Latin or Greek Latin or Greek Italicized in print Italicized in print Capitalize genus, but NOT species Capitalize genus, but NOT species Underline when writing Underline when writing Turdus migratorius American Robin

12 12 Binomial Nomenclature

13 13 Rules for Naming Organisms The International Code for Binomial Nomenclature contains the rules for naming organisms The International Code for Binomial Nomenclature contains the rules for naming organisms All names must be approved by International Naming Congresses (International Zoological Congress) All names must be approved by International Naming Congresses (International Zoological Congress) This prevents duplicated names This prevents duplicated names

14 14 Classification Groups Taxon ( taxa-plural) is a category into which related organisms are placed Taxon ( taxa-plural) is a category into which related organisms are placed There is a hierarchy of groups (taxa) from broadest to most specific There is a hierarchy of groups (taxa) from broadest to most specific Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species

15 15 Hierarchy-Taxonomic Groups Domain Kingdom Phylum (Division – used for plants) Class Order Family Genus Species BROADEST TAXON

16 16 King Phillip Came Over For Good Soup!

17 17

18 18 Broadest, most inclusive taxon Broadest, most inclusive taxon Three domains Three domains Archaea and Eubacteria are unicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles) Archaea and Eubacteria are unicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles) Eukarya are more complex and have a nucleus and membrane- bound organelles Eukarya are more complex and have a nucleus and membrane- bound organelles Domains

19 19 Archaea live in harsh environments and may represent the first cells to have evolved. Sewage treatment plants, thermal vents, etc.

20 20 Eubacteria, some of which cause human diseases, are present in almost all habitats on earth. Many bacteria are important environmentally and commercially. Live in the intestines of animals

21 21 Domain Eukarya is Divided into Kingdoms Protista (protozoans, algae…) Protista (protozoans, algae…) Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts …) Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts …) Plantae (multicellular plants) Plantae (multicellular plants) Animalia (multicellular animals) Animalia (multicellular animals)

22 22 Protista Most are unicellular Most are unicellular Some are multicellular Some are multicellular Some are autotrophic, while others are heterotrophic Some are autotrophic, while others are heterotrophic

23 23 Fungi Multicellular, except yeast Multicellular, except yeast Absorptive heterotrophs (digest food outside their body & then absorb it) Absorptive heterotrophs (digest food outside their body & then absorb it) Cell walls made of chitin Cell walls made of chitin

24 24 Plantae Multicellular Multicellular Autotrophic Autotrophic Absorb sunlight to make glucose – Photosynthesis Absorb sunlight to make glucose – Photosynthesis Cell walls made of cellulose Cell walls made of cellulose

25 25 Animalia Multicellular Multicellular Ingestive heterotrophs (consume food & digest it inside their bodies) Ingestive heterotrophs (consume food & digest it inside their bodies) Feed on plants or animals Feed on plants or animals

26 26

27 27

28 28 Taxons Most genera contain a number of similar species, with the exception of Homo that only contains modern humans Most genera contain a number of similar species, with the exception of Homo that only contains modern humans evolutionary relationships Classification is based on evolutionary relationships

29 29

30 30 Basis for Modern Taxonomy Homologous structures (same structure, different function) Homologous structures (same structure, different function) Similar embryo development Similar embryo development Similarity in DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequence of Proteins Similarity in DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequence of Proteins

31 31 Homologous Structures show Similarities in mammals.

32 32 Similarities in Vertebrate Embryos

33 33 Cladogram Diagram showing how organisms are related based on shared, derived characteristics such as feathers, hair, or scales

34 34 Primate Cladogram

35 35 Dichotomous Keying Used to identify organisms Used to identify organisms Characteristics given in pairs Characteristics given in pairs Read both characteristics and either go to another set of characteristics OR identify the organism Read both characteristics and either go to another set of characteristics OR identify the organism

36 36 Example of Dichotomous Key 1a Tentacles present – Go to 2 1b Tentacles absent – Go to 3 2a Eight Tentacles – Octopus 2b More than 8 tentacles – 3 3a Tentacles hang down – go to 4 3b Tentacles upright–Sea Anemone 4a Balloon-shaped body–Jellyfish 4b Body NOT balloon-shaped - 5

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