Presentation on theme: "Language as a Sociocultural Practice. Understand How Language and Literacy Develop Language Development:Language Development: Six Months:Six Months: –Beginning."— Presentation transcript:
Language as a Sociocultural Practice
Understand How Language and Literacy Develop Language Development:Language Development: Six Months:Six Months: –Beginning of vocalization with intonation. –Responds to name, human voices without visual cues, and to friendly and angry tones. Twelve MonthsTwelve Months –Uses one or more words with meaning. –Understands simple instructions. –Practices inflection. –Becomes aware of social value of speech.
Eighteen MonthsEighteen Months –Vocabulary consists of five to twenty words. –Vocabulary is made up mostly of nouns. –Some repetition of words and phrases. –Speaks jargon that contains emotional content. –Is able to follow simple commands. Twenty-four MonthsTwenty-four Months –Can name a number of object in his/her surroundings. –Able to use a few common prepositions. –Combines words in a short sentence (noun/verb combinations).
–Approximately two-thirds of what child says is intelligible. –Vocabulary consists of 150 – 300 words. –Rhythm and fluency is poor. –Volume and pitch is not controlled. –Can use some pronouns correctly. –My and mine are beginning to emerge. –Responds to simple commands such as Show me your eyes.
Thirty-six months:Thirty-six months: –Uses I, you, and me correctly. –Uses some plurals and past tense. –Knows at least three prepositions. –Knows chief parts of body. –Has a vocabulary of about words. –Easily handles sentences with three words. –About ninety percent of childs speech is intelligible.
Thirty-six Months:Thirty-six Months: –Verbs begin to predominate. –Understands simple questions relating to his/her environment or activities. –Relates experiences so that they are followed with reason. –Should be able to give sex, name, and age. –Should not be able to answer all questions even though he/she understands what is expected.
Forty-eight Months:Forty-eight Months: –Knows names of familiar animals. –Can use more prepositions and demonstrate his/her understanding of their meaning when given commands. –Names common objects in picture books. –Knows one or more colors. –Can repeat four digits when repeated slowly. –Can usually repeat words containing four syllables.
Forty-eight Months:Forty-eight Months: –Demonstrates understanding of over and under. –Most vowels, diphthongs and consonants p, b, m, w, and n are well established. –Often indulges in make-believe. –Extensive verbalization as activities are carried out. –Understands comparison contrasts such as longer and larger. –Readily follows commands. –Much repetition of words, phrases, syllables, and even sounds.
Sixty Months:Sixty Months: –Uses descriptive words spontaneously. –Knows common opposites. –Has number concepts of four or more. –Can count to ten. –Speech should be completely intelligible. –Should have all vowels and the following consonants: m, p, b, h, w, k, g, t, d, n, ng, and y. –Should be able to repeat sentences with nine words. –Should be able to define common objects.
Sixty Months:Sixty Months: –Should be able to follow three commands without interruptions. –Should know his/her age. –Should have simple concepts of time. –Should be using fairly long sentences and some should be compound sentences. –On the whole, speech should be grammatically correct.
Six Years:Six Years: –F, v, sh, zh, and th should be mastered in addition to the above consonants. –Speech should be completely intelligible. –Should be able to tell a connected story and see a relationship between objects and happenings. Seven Years:Seven Years: –Master s as z, r, th, ch, wh, and soft g. –Should handle opposite analogies such as girl/boy. –Understands alike/different, beginning/end, etc. –Should be able to tell time to quarter hour. –Should be able to read simple texts and write or print many words.
Eight Years:Eight Years: –Can relate detailed accounts of events. –Easily uses complex and compound sentences. –All speech sounds should be established. –Read will ease and compose simple stories. –Easily control rate, pitch, and volume of speech. –Carry on a conversation at an adult level. –Follow complex instructions with few repetitions. –Has well developed time and number concepts. Resource:
Literacy Development Emergent Readers:Emergent Readers: –Understands that written language conveys messages. –Pretend to read and write. –Begins to match spoken words to print. –May know some letter/sound correspondence. –May recognize some words and letters in their environment. –Can write some letters, especially in their names. –May reverse some letters or use mostly capitals. –May make scribbles or strings of random letters. –May give meaning to marks, but not be able to read them later.
Early Readers:Early Readers: –Know that reading needs to make sense. –Become more attentive to print. –Understand that books have exact and unchanging messages carried by print and pictures. –Can identify letters by and use some sound knowledge to figure out words. –Know the meaning of some punctuation marks. –Can recognize common sight words. –Use pictures, story patterns, context and memory of some words as well as some phonics to make sense of print.
Early Fluent/Fluent ReadersEarly Fluent/Fluent Readers –Recognize many words in and out of context. –Can apply phonics and other word analysis skills to figure out and confirm new words. –Monitor their own reading for meaning and self correct as needed. –Read with increased fluency, accuracy, and expression. Resource:
Knowledge Construction Children develop and test hypothesis.Children develop and test hypothesis. Research suggests that errors are not random. Instead they are explained by understanding how people learn.Research suggests that errors are not random. Instead they are explained by understanding how people learn. What an adult views as erroneous, reflects the stages of development.What an adult views as erroneous, reflects the stages of development. When internal and social forces meet disequilibrium is often the result.When internal and social forces meet disequilibrium is often the result. –When such tension occurs, children actively seek to reinstate a sense of balance. Different backgrounds make knowledge construction for each child.Different backgrounds make knowledge construction for each child.
Personal and Sociocultural Influences Childrens unique interests, activities, print features they attend to, ways of knowing, and dispositions influence how ant to what extent they participate in early literacy events. Families influence childrens literacy. Individual familial, social, and cultural forces make each childs history unique. Children simultaneously build knowledge about aspects of language, it functions, formats, genres, meanings, sounds, grammar, visual features, and spelling.
The knowledge children develop and the way they develop it, is shaped by their sociocultural experiences.The knowledge children develop and the way they develop it, is shaped by their sociocultural experiences. All children have literacy knowledge. – The richer and more varied settings, the richer the childs language and concepts will be.All children have literacy knowledge. – The richer and more varied settings, the richer the childs language and concepts will be.
Understanding Language as a Sociocultural Practice Research indicates that language develops as a sociocultural practice.Research indicates that language develops as a sociocultural practice. Children develop the capability to use, talk about and learn through language.Children develop the capability to use, talk about and learn through language. Children are encultured into the most common and evident forms literacy in their homes and communities before they even begin school.Children are encultured into the most common and evident forms literacy in their homes and communities before they even begin school.