2 I. Independence Movements Independence movements based on class conflicts and the desire for self-governmentHaitiOriginally a French colony called Saint-DominigueFirst American territory to free itselfAfrican slaves rose up in revoltToussaint L’Oeverture – led and freed all enslaved AfricansWas captured and jailed by the FrenchHaiti went on to declare its independence in 1804VenezuelaLed by a Creole military leader, Simon BolivarDeclared independence in 1811, but would not be completely free until 1821
3 I. Continued… Other Spanish colonies Mexico Brazil Bolivar teamed up with another Creole military leader, Jose de San MartinDefeated Spanish in many battles – freed Panama, Ecuador, Columbia, Peru, Chile, ArgentinaMexicoIndependence movement originally began by lower classes (mestizos, Indians) and opposed by upper classes (creoles)By 1820, Creoles feared liberal changes in Spain, declared independence (1821) in order to prevent loss of land, wealthBrazilWon independence from Portugal with a bloodless revolutionCreoles asked the king’s son for freedom8,000 Brazilians signed petition
4 I. Continued… LATIN AMERICA AFTER INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS LATIN AMERICA PRIOR TO INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS
5 II. Problems for New Nations Many questions to deal with - social inequalities, political ideologies, role of the church, regionalismEarly independence leaders sought egalitarianismAfter independence, equality not always the caseMany new nations depended on “old ways” to keep economy goingVoting rights only for menSociedad de castas did not disappearDistinctions bases on race/ethnicity in full forcePolitical fragmentationNew nations could be grouped into political blocksRegional rivalries, economic competition, political divisions prevented unity
6 II. Continued… Rise of caudillos Centralists vs. Federalists Central and South America – series of unions that eventually dissolvedGeographic barriers, long distances, poor transportationRise of caudillosIndependent leaders who dominated local areas by forceSometimes seized entire national governmentsProved to be stabilizing factors when political fragmentation become too muchCentralists vs. FederalistsCentralists called for strong central governmentFederalists called for regional governmentsLiberals vs. ConservativesLiberals called for individual rights, more secular societyConservatives often argued for return of more traditional colonial aspects (social classes, strong central gov’t)
7 III. Economies of Latin America Support of Britain and U.S. allowed Latin America to enter world marketBecome dependent on trade with EuropeWars hurt industries of Latin America– economy became stagnantAs European economies grew, demands for Latin American goods increasedCoffee, beef, minerals, grainsThe Great Boom– a surge in economic activityResulted in expansion of cities, government projectsRivalries between nations increasedConflicts over access to resources
8 III. Continued… Leaders became more focused on capitalist markets As landowners met demand for goods and materials, peasants lost ground (literally)With flood of immigrants looking for work, new forms of labor and (disguised) servitude developed
9 IV. Social Changes Societal changes slow to come Women gained very little – still expected to be wives and mothers onlyCould not vote, hold public office, become lawyersDid have access to public educationCaste-like systems mostly ended, but the stigma of skin color and status remainedLimited opportunities for manyIndigenous people still lived in poor conditions, with little upward mobility
10 Key Vocabulary – Ch. 25 Gran Columbia Caudillos Centralists FederalistsMonroe DoctrineGuanoPositivismManifest destinyTreaty of Guadalupe-HidalgoLa ReformaArgentine RepublicFazendasCientificosSpanish-American WarPanama Canal
11 Wrap-up: 5-minute Response Even after independence, how did Europe continue to affect/influence Latin America?
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