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BIPOLAR WORLD Cold War World. Essential Questions Compare & contrast capitalism & communism as political systems & as economic systems. Identify how Cold.

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Presentation on theme: "BIPOLAR WORLD Cold War World. Essential Questions Compare & contrast capitalism & communism as political systems & as economic systems. Identify how Cold."— Presentation transcript:

1 BIPOLAR WORLD Cold War World

2 Essential Questions Compare & contrast capitalism & communism as political systems & as economic systems. Identify how Cold War consumerism & the Truman Doctrine in the ultimate defeat of communism. Examine the division of Germany in terms of potential for future confrontation b/w the U.S. & the Soviets Examine the Proxy War in Korea in terms of past and future implications.

3 Capitalism vs. Communism CAPITALISM U.S. Ideology Liberalism Property rights Free market Welfare State COMMUNISM: Khrushchevs Reform Relaxation of terror Economic growth

4 Command Economy In a Command Economy, the government controls all factors of production. Examples of the Command Economy were the Stalins 5 Year Plans and Maos The Great Leap Forward The government decides what items will be made by whom, and to whom they would be sold and at what price. The Soviet Union had a Command Economy

5 Global Communism Soviet Strategies Military parity [U.S.] National liberations > through COMINTERN U.S. Strategy: Truman Doctrine Containment

6 Truman Doctrine

7 Europe Divided EAST & WEST GERMANY > 1949 West Germany: very prosperous > subsidized by Western nations East Germany: Very poor > population only 19M Many escaped to the west BERLIN WALL & Border fortified to prevent escape

8 Division of Germany

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11 Nuclear Arms Race NATO & Warsaw Pact Created arms race 1960s Soviets achieve parity 1970s Both sides acquire MAD > Mutually Assured Destruction

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13 Cold War Turns Hot [PROXY WAR] KOREA: Divided at 38 th Parallel N. Korea invaded S. U.N. intervention China enters war Cease fire 1953 at 38th Parallel

14 YALU RIVER

15 Cold War Turns Hot CUBA: Castro overthrew Batista Regime 1959 Expropriated U.S. property Killed /exiled opponents U.S. embargo > sugar Soviets bolster economy Bay of Pigs > fiasco 1961 Soviets place ICBMs Cuban Missile Crisis

16 Soviet ICBMs in Cuba > 1962 Kennedy response Naval quarantine to stop shipments U.N. oversaw removal Soviet response Backed down & Capitulated U.S. promise not to overthrow Castro

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18 Globalization of Containment Creation of SEATO Southeast Asia Treaty Organization Counterpart of NATO Eisenhowers DOMINO THEORY Fear that if one country [S.E. Asia] fell to communism the rest would follow.

19 Colonial Liberation : Philippines Philippine independence: July 4, 1946 U.S. maintained military bases Wielded influence in politics Soviets identified this as U.S. imperialism

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21 Bandung Conference 1955 Asian & African discuss NON-ALIGNMENT Countries do not align with with either superpower Jawaharlal Nehru {India} articulated non-alignment Bandung failed to form united front against the superpowers

22 Political Dangers of Superpower Intervention Both used military / economic aide to influence newly emerged nations Intrusion hindered democracy in developing nations Support strained relationships with neighbors

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24 Cold War Societies Domestic Containment Female Liberation Black Nationalism Cold War Consumerism

25 Domestic Containment & Feminism The 1950s Family A. Search for Security In our last lecture, you read about the promotion of domestic containment. Americans were told that they faced a threat to their very way of life from international communism. Next to building a backyard bomb shelter, the best way Americans could protect themselves and the nation was to return to "traditional values." After the trauma of the Great Depression and then World War II, most Americans did not need much convincing. They searched for security, for a return to normalcy, for an American ideal that never existed. B. Religion They searched for that security through religion. In the 1950s, church attendance rose to over 50% for the first time, supported in part by the prevailing cold war mood since communists were supposedly avowedly atheists. by 1957, the U.S. Census Bureau reported that 96%of the American people cited a specific affiliation when asked, "What is your religion?" Government leaders encouraged this return to God when Congress in 1954 added the phrases "under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance and in 1955 stamped "In God we trust" on all American currency. Even President Eisenhower proclaimed that "Our government makes no sense unless it is founded on a deeply religious faith, and I don't care what it is."They searched for that security through religion. In the 1950s, church attendance rose to over 50% for the first time, supported in part by the prevailing cold war mood since communists were supposedly avowedly atheists. by 1957, the U.S. Census Bureau reported that 96%of the American people cited a specific affiliation when asked, "What is your religion?" Government leaders encouraged this return to God when Congress in 1954 added the phrases "under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance and in 1955 stamped "In God we trust" on all American currency. Even President Eisenhower proclaimed that "Our government makes no sense unless it is founded on a deeply religious faith, and I don't care what it is." Billy Graham Billy Graham C. The "Traditional" Family Even more than the refuge of religion, the family unit was seen as providing the best security after the traumas of the 1930s and '40s and the uncertainties of the postwar era. It would serve as the bulwark against communism in the Cold War fight at home. But while Americans were told to embrace traditional family values, the "traditional" family of the 1950s was a qualitatively new phenomenon. During this decade, men and women were getting married earlier, having more kids, and getting fewer divorces than families had for over the previous century. While previous generations might keep close extended family ties, newlyweds in the 1950s were establishing single-family homes at an earlier age and faster than ever before. Starting a family became the key to self-identity, the center to one's life. A 1955 poll showed that less than 10% believed that an unmarried person could be happy. What I am arguing here is that there was very little that was "traditional" of what we have come to refer to as the "traditional" families of the 1950s. It was something new.Starting a family became the key to self-identity, the center to one's life. A 1955 poll showed that less than 10% believed that an unmarried person could be happy. What I am arguing here is that there was very little that was "traditional" of what we have come to refer to as the "traditional" families of the 1950s. It was something new. <= PREVIOUS PAGE NEXT PAGE =>

26 Consumerism

27 Domestic Containment Red Scare: U.S. families as defense against infiltration McCarthyism [Witch Hunts] Violation of constitutional rights Womens dissatisfaction Betty Freidan Womens Liberation Used Marxist terms to identify female circumstances

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29 Black Nationalism Marleys music & Marcus Garvey influenced M.L.K. influenced by Gandhi U.S.S.R. used it to expose weaknesses of U.S. capitalism Rosa Parks sparked the revolution 1955

30 Cold War Consumerism Weakened the Soviet position Could not match consumerism of West Western European economic boom vs. Eastern European slow growth Berlin > virtual contrast Khrushchevs visit [U.S.] humanized both sides

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33 Enduring Question Why was the U.S. ultimately successful emerging from the Cold War as the undisputed Super Power? What evidence can we find that illustrates the fact that the Russians may be down but they certainly are not OUT?


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