Presentation on theme: "11.3: The War at Home Main Idea: The war unleashed disruptions in American society as the government tried to meet the demands of modern warfare. American."— Presentation transcript:
11.3: The War at Home Main Idea: The war unleashed disruptions in American society as the government tried to meet the demands of modern warfare. American armored troops going forward in the Argonne, France, September 26, 1918
Political Consequences: Government Power Increased War Industries Board regulated industries and allocated resources Fuel Administration rationed fuel and established daylight-saving time Food Administration encouraged food conservation and victory gardens National War Labor Board monitored working conditions and labor disputes Committee on Public Information used propaganda to increase support for the war
Political Consequences: Attacks on Civil Liberties Discrimination against German-Americans Espionage and Sedition Acts, 1917 made it a crime to criticize the government or the war effort –Violated the 1 st amendment –Targeted socialists, labor leaders and pacifists, people who believe all war is evil Schenck v. U.S., 1919: protesting the draft during wartime created a clear and present danger and is not protected by the 1 st amendment
Economic Consequences Corporate profits increased; the U.S. later became the worlds greatest industrial power Wages increased but could not keep up with inflation –Membership in labor unions increased Business and government collaborated to shift production from consumer goods to war materials Taxes were raised War bonds were sold
Shipyard workers were exempt from the draft. Workers who did not cooperate with the War Labor Board were told to work or fight.
Social Consequences for African- Americans Leading African-Americans disagreed about supporting the war –W. E. B. DuBois supported the war and believed it would help win equality –William Monroe Trotter said victims of racism should not support a racist govt Great Migration –Thousands of African-Americans moved North to get away from Jim Crow and work in war industries –Racial violence moved North
Social Consequences for Women New jobs: railroad workers, coal miners, ship- building, etc. Volunteers: Red Cross, promoting war bonds Many, like Jane Addams, became pacifists (believed all war is evil) Wilson gave support to the 19 th Amend. but not to equal pay for equal work Women served in the Army Corps of Nurses without rank or pay 13,000 women served in non-combat positions in the Navy and Marines (the Navy gave them rank) Stepped up efforts for womens suffrage and the 19 th amendment
Women also had to sacrifice fashion for the war effort.
Social Consequences: The Flu Epidemic 500,000 Americans, 30 million worldwide died Devastated the U.S. economy Spread by soldiers returning home Contributed to the chaos and despair caused by the war