Presentation on theme: "11.3: The War at Home Main Idea: The war unleashed disruptions in American society as the government tried to meet the demands of modern warfare. American."— Presentation transcript:
111.3: The War at HomeMain Idea: The war unleashed disruptions in American society as the government tried to meet the demands of modern warfare.American armored troops going forward in the Argonne, France, September 26, 1918
2Political Consequences: Government Power Increased War Industries Board regulated industries and allocated resourcesFuel Administration rationed fuel and established daylight-saving timeFood Administration encouraged food conservation and “victory gardens”National War Labor Board monitored working conditions and labor disputesCommittee on Public Information used propaganda to increase support for the war
4Political Consequences: Attacks on Civil Liberties Discrimination against German-AmericansEspionage and Sedition Acts, 1917 made it a crime to criticize the government or the war effortViolated the 1st amendmentTargeted socialists, labor leaders and pacifists, people who believe all war is evilSchenck v. U.S., 1919: protesting the draft during wartime created a “clear and present danger” and is not protected by the 1st amendment
6Economic Consequences Corporate profits increased; the U.S. later became the world’s greatest industrial powerWages increased but could not keep up with inflationMembership in labor unions increasedBusiness and government collaborated to shift production from consumer goods to war materialsTaxes were raisedWar bonds were sold
7Shipyard workers were exempt from the draft Shipyard workers were exempt from the draft. Workers who did not cooperate with the War Labor Board were told to “work or fight”.
8Social Consequences for African-Americans Leading African-Americans disagreed about supporting the warW. E. B. DuBois supported the war and believed it would help win equalityWilliam Monroe Trotter said victims of racism should not support a racist govtGreat MigrationThousands of African-Americans moved North to get away from Jim Crow and work in war industriesRacial violence moved North
9Social Consequences for Women New jobs: railroad workers, coal miners, ship-building, etc.Volunteers: Red Cross, promoting war bondsMany, like Jane Addams, became pacifists (believed all war is evil)Wilson gave support to the 19th Amend. but not to equal pay for equal workWomen served in the Army Corps of Nurses without rank or pay13,000 women served in non-combat positions in the Navy and Marines (the Navy gave them rank)Stepped up efforts for women’s suffrage and the 19th amendment
13Women also had to sacrifice fashion for the war effort.
14Social Consequences: The 1918-1919 Flu Epidemic 500,000 Americans, 30 million worldwide diedDevastated the U.S. economySpread by soldiers returning homeContributed to the chaos and despair caused by the war