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AMERICAN HISTORY.  Going to war was an enormous and very expensive  President Wilson and Congress had to figure out how to pay for it  Congress passed.

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Presentation on theme: "AMERICAN HISTORY.  Going to war was an enormous and very expensive  President Wilson and Congress had to figure out how to pay for it  Congress passed."— Presentation transcript:

1 AMERICAN HISTORY

2  Going to war was an enormous and very expensive  President Wilson and Congress had to figure out how to pay for it  Congress passed the War Revenue Act of 1917  Very high taxes established and wealthy people paid 77% of their annual income  Revenue increased 400% within 2 years

3  Government also borrowed money  National debt grew from $1.2 billion (1916) to $25.5 billion (1919)  More than $20 billion was owed to Americans who purchased Liberty Bonds  REGULATING INDUSTRY  Congress created several boards to make sure businesses were creating war supplies

4  War Industries Board (WIB)—authority to regulate all materials needed for the war effort  Leader was Bernard Baruch  “No steel, copper, cement, rubber, or other basic materials could be used without our approval”  Industrial production increased by 20%

5  REGULATING FOOD  Congress passed the Lever Food and Fuel Control Act  Government given the power to set prices and establish production  Americans asked to plant vegetables in “victory gardens”

6  REGULATING FUEL  Fuel Administration established to set production goals and prices for fuel  SUPPLYING U.S. AND ALLIED TROOPS  USA became a major supplier for the Allied Powers  Great Britain alone received 1 billion rounds of ammunition, 1.2 million rifles, 0.5 million tons of explosives

7  Profits from corporations skyrocketed  Wages for factory workers increased as well  Laborers worked long hours and in very unsafe conditions  Harsh work conditions led many to join labor unions—60% increase  6,000 strikes during this time period

8  NATIONAL WAR LABOR BOARD (1918)  Judges disputes between workers and management  Board lasted less than a year but handled 1,200 cases involving 700,000 workers  WOMEN’S WAR EFFORTS  Women moved into jobs traditionally held by men when men went to war

9  1 million women entered the workforce during WWI  Women left these jobs when the men returned, both voluntarily and by force  INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC ON THE HOME FRONT  Severe flu epidemic broke out

10  This flu was deadly, killing people within days  Ex.—October 1918—200,000 Americans died from flu  City gatherings were canceled  675,000 Americans killed from flu (actually bird flu transmitted directly to humans)

11  President Wilson had to convince people to support the war effort  WINNING AMERICAN SUPPORT  Committee on Public Information (CPI) created PROPOGANDA—posters, newspaper stories, speeches, other items used to influence public opinion

12  Posters created to influence public opinion (p. 603)  Anti-German feelings grew  German American loyalty was questioned  LIMITING ANTI-WAR SPEECH  Prominent Americans such as Jane Addams & Sen. Robert LaFollette spoke out against the war

13  1917—Congress passed the ESPIONAGE ACT  Punished people for aiding the enemy or refusing military duty  1918—Congress passed the SEDITION ACT  Illegal for Americans to “utter, print, write, or publish any disloyal…or abusive language” criticizing the government, the flag or the military

14  More than 1,000 people jailed under this law  Socialist Party leader Eugene V. Debs received 10 years for criticizing the US govt.’s prosecution of Americans.  Debs was released by presidential order after the war ended  Some people believed the Espionage Act and the Sedition Act violated the first amendment

15 SSchenck v. United States CCharles Schenck distributed 15,000 leaflets opposing government war policies UUS Supreme Court unanimously upheld Schenck’s conviction JJustice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote that some limits needed to be placed on speech during wartime to ensure the country’s overall safety (p. 605) TTHE END


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