Presentation on theme: "Unit II- Becoming a World Power"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit II- Becoming a World Power Chapter 8 Section 3The Home Front
2 The U.S. mobilized a variety of resources to wage World War I. The Home FrontThe Main IdeaThe U.S. mobilized a variety of resources to wage World War I.Reading FocusHow did the government mobilize the economy for the war effort?How did workers mobilize on the home front?How did the government try to influence public opinion about the war?
4 Mobilizing the Economy Going to war was extremely expensive, and President Wilson needed to find ways to pay for it.TaxesCongress passed the War Revenue Act of 1917.Loans and Liberty BondsRegulating Industry
6 Mobilization of Money Military Expenses Expenses for army, navy, credit and materials for allies ran into billions.$23 billion for the U.S. war effort and $10 billion for war loans to Allies.Taxes and Loans and Liberty Bonds
17 Regulations to Supply U.S. and Allied Troops Regulating FoodCongress passed the Lever Food and Fuel Control Act.Herbert Hoover’s Food Administration.The 1919 Volstead Act.Regulating FuelThe Fuel Administrationdaylight savings timefuel conservation.
21 Government takes control Some Private Businesses were taken over.Council of Defense
22 Mobilizing the Economy How did the government mobilize the economy for the war effort?What was the War Revenue Act of 1917?What was the function of the War Industries Board?Why do you think it was necessary for the government to set prices and production controls for food and fuel during the war?
23 Mobilizing the Economy What steps did the Fuel Administration take to encourage fuel conservation?How did patriotism play a part in the passage of the 18th Amendment?
24 Mobilizing WorkersDuring the war, the profits of many major industrial companies skyrocketed.This created enormous profits for stockholdersFactory wages also increased, but the cost of food and housing went up.War demands also led to laborers working long hours in increasingly dangerous conditions.labor unions.Union membership increased by about 60 percent between 1916 and 1919, and unions boomed as well, with more than 6,000 strikes held during the war.
28 Government takes control- The Labor Force United States Employment Service created to fill jobs in vital industries.A National War Labor Board- created to arbitrate labor disputes.- 8 hour workday and government support of unions.
30 Influenza SpreadsThree waves of a severe flu epidemic broke out between 1918 and 1919 in Europe and in America.Of all American troops who died in World War II, half died from influenza.On the Western Front, crowded and unsanitary trenches helped flu spread among troops, then to American military camps in Kansas and beyond.This strain of influenza was deadly, killing healthy people within days, and during the month of October 1918, influenza killed nearly 200,000 Americans.Panicked city leaders halted gatherings, and people accused the Germans of releasing flu germs into the populace.Scientists haveReconstructed the1918 influenzaVirus and found itto be a bird flu thatwas transmitteddirectly to humansThey analyzed twoPeople who died in1918 epidemic..By the time it passed, over 600,000 Americans lost their lives.
32 Mobilizing Workers How did workers mobilize on the home front? What were some of the policies set by the National War Labor Board?What can you infer from the fact that profits of many major industrial corporations skyrocketed because they sold their products to the federal government?How did war demands lead to an increase in union membership?
33 How did the influenza epidemic affect American life? Mobilizing WorkersHow did the influenza epidemic affect American life?How did the influenza epidemic spread?
34 Influencing Public Opinion President Wilson used a number of tactics to gain the support of Americans who had favored neutrality in World War I.PropagandaThe Committee on Public Information (CPI) appointed reporter and reformer George Creel as its leader.Reactions
35 Fear on the Homefront: The Espionage and Sedition Acts (05:19)
42 Limiting Antiwar Speech Some Americans Speak OutProminent Americans such as pacifist reformer Jane Addams and Senator Robert La Follette spoke out against the war.Addams founded the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom.Wilson’s administration tried to limit public speech about the war.LegislationEspionage ActSedition ActOpponentsMore than 1,000 opponents of war were jailed under those actsSocialist Party leader Eugene Debs