Presentation on theme: "Topics to be covered: Paragraph construction * general to specific/identify the problem-provide a solution Paragraph issues * using definitions * internal."— Presentation transcript:
Topics to be covered: Paragraph construction * general to specific/identify the problem-provide a solution Paragraph issues * using definitions * internal flow – linking words * using articles * summary words
General to specific Same structure as you would use for the overall introduction/context setting section of a paper With every subsequent paragraph you are leading up to your hypothesis/central argument. General structure: Situation – current claims Problem – reasons for why more information is needed Solution – other ways of looking at the problem/leading into research question or argument
An example of the last paragraphs in an introduction: These studies indicate that a more accurate percentage for English would be around 50% rather than 80%. (situation and summary sentence) However, so far no major international study exists to corroborate such a conclusion. (problem) In an attempt to gain an understanding of the global picture of language use, we present the findings of the first international survey of English in research and scholarship. (solution)
You can use a number of phrase to introduce the problem to which your paper offers a solution. It is not clear, however, whether…. Despite this, little progress has been made… Nevertheless, the issue of clarity remains….. It has not been determined…. There is some question…. We need to know…. Another issue raised is…. Current studies provide little information…..
How do the sentences flow within one paragraph?
Example text comparison: pg. 26 in Swales and Feak What makes one flow better than the other? - Linking words and phrases
Adding a thought - furthermore, moreover, in addition, in addition to Adverse - although, even though, however, nevertheless, despite
Cause & effect: Because, since, therefore, as a result, consequently, hence and thus Contrast: While, whereas, in contrast, however, on the other hand, conversely
Illustration: for example, for instance Intensification: in fact, on the contrary Try task 16, pg 31 in Swales and Feak
Semicolons: - join 2 independent but related sentences; can be used with connectors; they could be separate sentences ( chart from Swales and Feak, pg. 29 ) e.g. Plant biomass is related to root volume; plants increase their biomass in response to increased root volume. OR Increasing the number of petioles can cause rapid flowering; however, flowering is also dependent on other factors.
Using the words this or these helps with flow in a paragraph This or these refers back to a noun in the previous sentence, it is either used alone or with the noun if the reference is unclear.
Articles: Definite, indefinite or none? All nouns need articles unless they are non-countable or used in a general sense. a) Research is an important activity in universities. b) The research undertaken by Dr. Pereira was supported by a grant. c) An interesting piece of research was conducted by the Swiss team. Come up with some general rules about which article, if any, to use when, given the sentences above.
Articles are also used in definitions – using the or a depends if there has been previous mention or if it is a broad category. e.g. Polymerase chain reaction is a method used in biotechnology labs. VS. Polymerase chain reaction is the method used in biotechnology labs. Are these sentences saying the same thing?
You use examples in the introduction and discussion of your paper, to support your ideas and to help readers understand particular points. Fits into your paragraph structure – start with a generalization, then support it with examples.
Practice examples: Practice A and B on pages 132 – 133 in Bailey HMWK: Analyze your own manuscripts introduction looking for linking and summary words. Do your paragraphs go from general to specific? Are they all building up to the problem/issue that you are going to address?