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Cohesion: Signposting and punctuation References: Bailey, S. 2011. Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students. Routledge: Oxon. Swales, J.

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Presentation on theme: "Cohesion: Signposting and punctuation References: Bailey, S. 2011. Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students. Routledge: Oxon. Swales, J."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Cohesion: Signposting and punctuation References: Bailey, S Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students. Routledge: Oxon. Swales, J. & Feak, C Academic Writing for Graduate Students. The University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor. Swan, M Practical English Usage. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press: Oxford Websites: ’

3 We’ve been talking about flow… −Language of academic papers  vocabulary shift −Organizing information in a paper  paragraphs and sentences −Now, to establish a clear connection of ideas… −Use linking words and phrases as well as punctuation.

4 Part 1: Linking words and phrases Can help maintain flow and establish clear relationships between ideas Can be arranged according to their function and grammatical use.

5 Also called a ’discourse marker’ Discourse means ’pieces of language longer than a sentence’. Some words and expressions are used to show how discourse is constructed. They can show the connection between what a speaker is saying and what has already been said or what is going to be said; they can indicate what speakers think about what they are saying or what others have said. (Swan, 1995, p. 159)

6 More commonly called signposts because they show you the way…

7 EXPLANATIONS Subordinators:Sentence connectors: Phrase linkers: introduce a dependent clause. It must be joined to an independent clause to complete the sentence and to give the full meaning. introduce a complete sentence (independent clause). introduce a noun phrase, usually at the beginning of a sentence (but not always).

8 EXAMPLE SubordinatorSentence Coordinator Phrase linker Because he was handy, he was always asked to come and repair something. Therefore, he was always asked to come and repair something Because of his handiness, he was always asked to come and repair something Independent clause: He was handy.

9 What they are and what they do Formal, academic style

10 Addition Subordinators: introduce a dependent clause that must be joined to complete a sentence Sentence connectors: Introduce a complete sentence Phrase linkers: Introduce a noun phrase --Furthermore, In addition, Moreover, Also Additionally, Another thing to note is What is more, In addition to… As well as… Informal: So, Another thing is, In any case, Besides,…= not acceptable

11 Adversativity: opposition (emphatic contrast) Subordinators: introduce a dependent clause that must be joined to complete a sentence Sentence connectors: Introduce a complete sentence Phrase linkers: Introduce a noun phrase Although Even though However, Nevertheless, Nonetheless, Despite In spite of

12 Cause and effect Subordinators: introduce a dependent clause that must be joined to complete a sentence Sentence connectors: Introduce a complete sentence Phrase linkers: Introduce a noun phrase Because Since Insofar as Therefore, As a result, Consequently, Hence, Thus**, Because of Due to As a result of Owing to Informal: So, Then, … = unacceptable

13 Clarification Subordinators: introduce a dependent clause that must be joined to complete a sentence Sentence connectors: Introduce a complete sentence Phrase linkers: Introduce a noun phrase --In other words, That is to say (i.e.) --

14 Contrast: difference Subordinators: introduce a dependent clause that must be joined to complete a sentence Sentence connectors: Introduce a complete sentence Phrase linkers: Introduce a noun phrase While Whereas In contrast, However, On the other hand, Conversely, Meanwhile, Unlike

15 Generalization SubordinatorsSentence ConnectorsPhrase linkers On the whole, In general, Broadly speaking, To a great extent, Overall, Apart from, Except for, (exceptions to generalizations)

16 Illustration Subordinators: introduce a dependent clause that must be joined to complete a sentence Sentence connectors: Introduce a complete sentence Phrase linkers: Introduce a noun phrase inside a sentence --For example, For instance, especially specifically for example for instance such as

17 Intensification Subordinators: introduce a dependent clause that must be joined to complete a sentence Sentence connectors: Introduce a complete sentence Phrase linkers: Introduce a noun phrase --On the contrary As a matter of fact, In fact --

18 Parallelism/Comparing Subordinators: introduce a dependent clause that must be joined to complete a sentence Sentence connectors: Introduce a complete sentence Phrase linkers: Introduce a noun phrase WhileSimultaneously, At the same time, Similarly, Likewise, Meanwhile, --

19 Referring SubordinatorsSentence ConnectorsPhrase linkers As was previously mentioned, As has been noted, With reference to Regarding Concerning

20 Structuring SubordinatorsSentence ConnectorsPhrase linkers First, Second, Third…Finally,.. Firstly, Secondly, … First, then, after that, next, Finally, To begin with, To start with, To conclude, To summerize,

21 Additional information Using English for Academic Purposes (UEFAP) Rhetorical functions: Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University Writing transitions: Transitional devices: Academic Writing in English (AWE) website Signposts: Bailey, S. (2011) Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students Part 2 (pgs )

22 Other linking words

23 This (these)+ summary word −ESL lecturers know that students need to understand the differences between formal and informal language. However, this understanding cannot usually be aquired quickly. −This = demonstrative pronoun −Refers to the previous phrase (given  new)

24 Other pronoun possibilities… −Basics – he, she, it, they, we −Posessive – his, her(s),its, their(s), our (not common in AW) −Objective – her, him, them, us (not common in AW) −Demonstrative – this, that, these, those −Other – the former, the latter, the aforementioned, the abovementioned,

25 Homework −Reading textbook −Chapters: −2.4: Comparisons −2.9: Problems and solutions −3.9: Punctuation

26 Part 2: Punctuation Sentence connectors raise the important issue of punctuation You have to learn the proper use of punctuation in English and in your field We only deal with some punctuation, namely comma (,), semicolon (;), colon (:) and dash(-)

27 Semicolon −Joins two (completely independent) clauses/phrases that are related or connected to each other. −Works much like a full stop (period) −Air traffic delays due to high traffic volume have increased considerably over the last decade; these delays have become a major public policy issue. −Some argue that it’s stronger than comma and weaker than a period. −Can be used with sentence connectors −Increasing the size of airports is one solution to traffic congestion; however, this is a long-term solution whose benefits may not be seen for many years into the future.

28 Semicolon −Can be used to separate rather long items in list : −Some of the solutions to the air traffic delay problem include increasing the size of airports that routinely experiece flight delays; overhauling the air traffic control system so that more flights can be safely handled; and increasing landing fees. −Is usually used if the information is grammatically complex.

29 Colon and Comma −Weaker stops −Comma (,) separates items in a list −Colon (:) introduces a list and explanations −The meeting was postponed: the Dean was ill. −Commas used with conjunctions (and, but, or) and subordinators (although, if, whereas) −There are four main causes of airport congestion: bad weather, excessive volume, runway closures, and equipment outages.

30 Dash −Sometimes a dash is used to introduce a list −They are used to intrude additional information to a sentence, much like brackets (). −There are four main causes of airport congestion: bad weather – such as a snowstorm – may ground planes… −Mostly, though, a dash is more often used in informal texts.


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