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ISRAEL/PALESTINE: An Introduction Robert B. Ross Point Park University.

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Presentation on theme: "ISRAEL/PALESTINE: An Introduction Robert B. Ross Point Park University."— Presentation transcript:

1 ISRAEL/PALESTINE: An Introduction Robert B. Ross Point Park University

2 Three Myths about Israel/Palestine Conflict

3 ①“They’ve been fighting for hundreds of years”

4 Three Myths about Israel/Palestine Conflict ①“They’ve been fighting for hundreds of years” ②“It’s complicated”

5 Three Myths about Israel/Palestine Conflict ①“They’ve been fighting for hundreds of years” ②“It’s complicated” ③“It’s all about religion”

6 Three Myths about Israel/Palestine Conflict ①“They’ve been fighting for hundreds of years”  Periodic fighting since 1917 ②“It’s complicated” ③“It’s all about religion”

7 Three Myths about Israel/Palestine Conflict ①“They’ve been fighting for hundreds of years”  Periodic fighting since 1917 ②“It’s complicated”  1948: The Birth of Israel and the Nakba (“Catastrophe”) ③“It’s all about religion”

8 Three Myths about Israel/Palestine Conflict ①“They’ve been fighting for hundreds of years”  Periodic fighting since 1917 ②“It’s complicated”  1948: The Birth of Israel and the Nakba (“Catastrophe”)  1967: Israeli occupation of Palestinian territory ③“It’s all about religion”

9 Three Myths about Israel/Palestine Conflict ①“They’ve been fighting for hundreds of years”  Periodic fighting since 1917 ②“It’s complicated”  1948: The Birth of Israel and the Nakba (“Catastrophe”)  1967: Israeli occupation of Palestinian territory ③“It’s all about religion”  It’s mostly about land

10 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine

11 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon)

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13 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon)

14 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic)

15 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule

16 Rise of the Ottoman Empire,

17 Fall of the Ottoman Empire,

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19 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule

20 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule 1880s: Zionist Movement begins

21 Pre-Zionist Palestine (1878)

22 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule 1880s: Zionist Movement begins

23 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule 1880s: Zionist Movement begins 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement

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25 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule 1880s: Zionist Movement begins 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement 1917: Balfour Declaration

26 Balfour Declaration

27 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule 1880s: Zionist Movement begins 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement 1917: Balfour Declaration 1920: British Mandate rule begins

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29 Palestine at beginning of British Mandate (1920)

30 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule 1880s: Zionist Movement begins 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement 1917: Balfour Declaration 1920: British Mandate rule begins : Nazi Holocaust

31 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule 1880s: Zionist Movement begins 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement 1917: Balfour Declaration 1920: British Mandate rule begins : Nazi Holocaust 1947: UN partition plan

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34 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule 1880s: Zionist Movement begins 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement 1917: Balfour Declaration 1920: British Mandate rule begins : Nazi Holocaust 1947: UN partition plan

35 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule 1880s: Zionist Movement begins 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement 1917: Balfour Declaration 1920: British Mandate rule begins : Nazi Holocaust 1947: UN partition plan 1948: Birth of Israel or The Naqba (Catastrophe)

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37

38 1948: Two “Rights to Return”

39 UN Resolution 194 (December 1948):

40 1948: Two “Rights to Return” UN Resolution 194 (December 1948): – “The UN General Assembly resolves that the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbors should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for the loss of or damage to property which, under the principles of international law and in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible”

41 1948: Two “Rights to Return” UN Resolution 194 (December 1948): – “The UN General Assembly resolves that the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbors should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for the loss of or damage to property which, under the principles of international law and in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible” Jewish “Right to Return”:

42 1948: Two “Rights to Return” UN Resolution 194 (December 1948): – “The UN General Assembly resolves that the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbors should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for the loss of or damage to property which, under the principles of international law and in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible” Jewish “Right to Return”: – “the State of Israel will be open for Jewish immigration and for the ingathering of the exiles...”

43 Population Movements ( )

44 Palestinian Refugee Camps

45 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule 1880s: Zionist Movement begins 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement 1917: Balfour Declaration 1920: British Mandate rule begins : Nazi Holocaust 1947: UN partition plan 1948: Birth of Israel or The Naqba (Catastrophe)

46 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule 1880s: Zionist Movement begins 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement 1917: Balfour Declaration 1920: British Mandate rule begins : Nazi Holocaust 1947: UN partition plan 1948: Birth of Israel or The Naqba (Catastrophe) 1956: Suez Crisis

47 1956 “Suez Crisis”

48 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule 1880s: Zionist Movement begins 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement 1917: Balfour Declaration 1920: British Mandate rule begins : Nazi Holocaust 1947: UN partition plan 1948: Birth of Israel or The Naqba (Catastrophe) 1956: Suez Crisis

49 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule 1880s: Zionist Movement begins 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement 1917: Balfour Declaration 1920: British Mandate rule begins : Nazi Holocaust 1947: UN partition plan 1948: Birth of Israel or The Naqba (Catastrophe) 1956: Suez Crisis 1964: Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is formed

50 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule 1880s: Zionist Movement begins 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement 1917: Balfour Declaration 1920: British Mandate rule begins : Nazi Holocaust 1947: UN partition plan 1948: Birth of Israel or The Naqba (Catastrophe) 1956: Suez Crisis 1964: Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is formed 1967: “Six-Day War”

51 Combatants in 1967 War: Israel Egypt Jordan Syria (Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Lebanon)

52 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule 1880s: Zionist Movement begins 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement 1917: Balfour Declaration 1920: British Mandate rule begins : Nazi Holocaust 1947: UN partition plan 1948: Birth of Israel or The Naqba (Catastrophe) 1956: Suez Crisis 1964: Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is formed 1967: “Six-Day War”

53 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1030 BCE – 722 BCE: Kingdom of Israel (David and Solomon) 700 BCE – 1516: Under the rule of several empires for hundreds of years thereafter (Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic) : Ottoman Rule 1880s: Zionist Movement begins 1916: Sykes-Picot Agreement 1917: Balfour Declaration 1920: British Mandate rule begins : Nazi Holocaust 1947: UN partition plan 1948: Birth of Israel or The Naqba (Catastrophe) 1956: Suez Crisis 1964: Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is formed 1967: “Six-Day War” > Israeli occupation begins

54 Israeli Occupation Israel occupies: – Sinai Peninsula (until 1982) – Gaza Strip – West Bank – Golan Heights

55 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine

56 1967: PLO moves to Jordan

57 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon

58 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War

59 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon

60

61 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon

62 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty

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64 Israel’s Withdrawal from Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula ( )

65 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty

66 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty 1980s: Israel settles more civilians in West Bank and Gaza

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69 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty 1980s: Israel settles more civilians in West Bank and Gaza

70 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty 1980s: Israel settles more civilians in West Bank and Gaza : First Palestinian Intifada (“Uprising”)

71 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty 1980s: Israel settles more civilians in West Bank and Gaza : First Palestinian Intifada (“Uprising”) – 1,376 Palestinians killed

72 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty 1980s: Israel settles more civilians in West Bank and Gaza : First Palestinian Intifada (“Uprising”) – 1,376 Palestinians killed – 94 Israelis killed

73 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty 1980s: Israel settles more civilians in West Bank and Gaza : First Palestinian Intifada (“Uprising”) – 1,376 Palestinians killed – 94 Israelis killed 1993: Oslo Peace Accords

74 Principles of Oslo Agreement

75 Creation of an interim Palestinian government (“Palestinian Authority”) and eventually, a Palestinian state

76 Principles of Oslo Agreement Creation of an interim Palestinian government (“Palestinian Authority”) and eventually, a Palestinian state “Gradual” Redeployment of Israeli Forces

77 Redeployment of Israeli troops Area A: Full control of Palestinian Authority Area B: Palestinian civil control and Israeli military control Area C: Full Israeli control

78 Oslo leaves for future negotiations:

79 Control of Jerusalem

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81 Oslo leaves for future negotiations: Control of Jerusalem Refugees

82 Oslo leaves for future negotiations: Control of Jerusalem Refugees Settlements

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84 Oslo leaves for future negotiations: Control of Jerusalem Refugees Settlements Security Arrangements

85 Oslo leaves for future negotiations: Control of Jerusalem Refugees Settlements Security Arrangements “Border relations and cooperation with their neighbors”

86 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty 1980s: Israel settles more civilians in West Bank and Gaza : First Palestinian Intifada (“Uprising”) 1993: Oslo Peace Accords

87 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty 1980s: Israel settles more civilians in West Bank and Gaza : First Palestinian Intifada (“Uprising”) 1993: Oslo Peace Accords : Second Palestinian Intifada

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89 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty 1980s: Israel settles more civilians in West Bank and Gaza : First Palestinian Intifada (“Uprising”) 1993: Oslo Peace Accords : Second Palestinian Intifada 2000-Present: Israel intensifies occupation

90 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty 1980s: Israel settles more civilians in West Bank and Gaza : First Palestinian Intifada (“Uprising”) 1993: Oslo Peace Accords : Second Palestinian Intifada 2000-Present: Israel intensifies occupation – Increased settlements in West Bank

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92 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty 1980s: Israel settles more civilians in West Bank and Gaza : First Palestinian Intifada (“Uprising”) 1993: Oslo Peace Accords : Second Palestinian Intifada 2000-Present: Israel intensifies occupation – Increased settlements in West Bank

93 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty 1980s: Israel settles more civilians in West Bank and Gaza : First Palestinian Intifada (“Uprising”) 1993: Oslo Peace Accords : Second Palestinian Intifada 2000-Present: Israel intensifies occupation – Increased settlements in West Bank – Separation/Security Barrier

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96 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty 1980s: Israel settles more civilians in West Bank and Gaza : First Palestinian Intifada (“Uprising”) 1993: Oslo Peace Accords : Second Palestinian Intifada 2000-Present: Israel intensifies occupation – Increased settlements in West Bank – Separation Barrier – Israeli-only roads

97 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty 1980s: Israel settles more civilians in West Bank and Gaza : First Palestinian Intifada (“Uprising”) 1993: Oslo Peace Accords : Second Palestinian Intifada 2000-Present: Israel intensifies occupation – Increased settlements in West Bank – Separation Barrier – Israeli-only roads – Checkpoints

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100 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty 1980s: Israel settles more civilians in West Bank and Gaza : First Palestinian Intifada (“Uprising”) 1993: Oslo Peace Accords : Second Palestinian Intifada 2000-Present: Israel intensifies occupation – Increased settlements in West Bank – Separation Barrier – Israeli-only roads – Checkpoints – Territorial sieges and home raids

101 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 1967: PLO moves to Jordan 1971: PLO kicked out of Jordan, moves to Lebanon 1973: October/”Yom Kippur” War 1978: Israel occupies southern Lebanon 1979: Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty 1980s: Israel settles more civilians in West Bank and Gaza : First Palestinian Intifada (“Uprising”) 1993: Oslo Peace Accords : Second Palestinian Intifada 2000-Present: Israel intensifies occupation – Increased settlements in West Bank – Separation Barrier – Israeli-only roads – Checkpoints – Territorial sieges and home raids – Home demolitions

102

103 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine

104 2006: Hamas wins legislative elections

105 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 2006: Hamas wins legislative elections 2006: Civil War between Palestinian Hamas and Fatah

106 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 2006: Hamas wins legislative elections 2006: Civil War between Palestinian Hamas and Fatah 2006-Present: Israeli siege on Gaza

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108 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 2006: Hamas wins legislative elections 2006: Civil War between Palestinian Hamas and Fatah 2006-Present: Israeli siege on Gaza 2006-Present: Rockets fired on Israel from Gaza

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110 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 2006: Hamas wins legislative elections 2006: Civil War between Palestinian Hamas and Fatah 2006-Present: Israeli siege on Gaza 2006-Present: Rockets fired on Israel from Gaza : Israeli war on Gaza

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112 Key Moments in the Historical Geography of Israel and Palestine 2006: Hamas wins legislative elections 2006: Civil War between Palestinian Hamas and Fatah 2006-Present: Israeli siege on Gaza 2006-Present: Rockets fired on Israel from Gaza : Israeli war on Gaza 2012: Israeli war on Gaza

113 The Future of Israel/Palestine Status Quo? One State? Two States?


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