Presentation on theme: "The Palestine Issue: an historical analysis N. Shamnad Lecturer in Arabic University College Thiruvananthapuram."— Presentation transcript:
The Palestine Issue: an historical analysis N. Shamnad Lecturer in Arabic University College Thiruvananthapuram
Understanding the Problem Political dimension Religious dimension Humanitarian dimension
Arabs and Jews For more than thirteen centuries Muslims, Christians and Jews coexisted peacefully. When persecuted in Europe or banished from it, many Jews sought refuge in Muslim lands. The problem in Palestine is not of communal nature; it is not between two religious communities that compete for resources or power, but between its people, the Palestinians, whether Muslim, Christian or Jewish on the one hand, and colonial invaders on the other.
From dominion to exile The Israelites ruled over parts of Palestine and not all of it for about four centuries (from 1,000 BC to 586 BC). Their rule faded away and they were forced out of Palestine by the Romans, who destroyed the second temple in the year 70 AD. By 135 AD the entire Israelite population of Palestine had been transformed into a Jewish Diaspora.
Colonial Designs Two Birds with one Stone Resolving the Jewish Problem of Europe - anti-Semitism - pogroms - Zionism - Balfour Declaration of 1917 Maintaining Control of the Middle East - booty of war - colonialism by proxy
Colonial Landmarks During the First World War, Britain adopted the Zionist project and issued the Balfour Declaration in November 1917 for the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine. By September 1918, the British occupation of Palestine was completed. The League of Nations, in July 1922, legitimized Britains occupation in the guise of a Mandate that included the Balfour declaration.
Daytime Theft During the British occupation period from 1918–1948, the doors of immigration into Palestine were made wide open before European Jews. There were 55,000 Jewish immigrants in 1918 and 6,46,000 in 1948. During that period too, British support for Jewish acquisition of Palestinian land enabled the Jews to increase their land ownership from 2% to 6.7% of the land of Palestine
The State of Israel On 29 November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly issued Resolution No. 181 recommending the partition of Palestine into two states. It was suggested that the Arabs take 45% and the Jews 54% while the remaining 1% (Jerusalem) is designated as an international territory. The Zionists announced the creation of their state Israel on the night of 14th May 1948.
The Palestinian Holocaust The Zionists seized 77% of the land of Palestine and forcibly expelled 8,00,000 inhabitants out of a total of 9,20, 000 Palestinians outside the area allotted for their state. In 1967, the rest of Palestine was lost. The West Bank including East Jerusalem as well as the Gaza strip were captured while 3,30,000 Palestinian inhabitants were made refugees.
Rate of increase of the landless, stateless and restricted population of refugees in Gaza, West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria
Downgrading the P.L.O. In November 1988, the PLO took the decision to enter into peaceful settlement with Israel on the basis of: UN Resolution No. 181 of November 1947 (relating to the partition of land between Jews and Arabs). Security Council Resolution No. 242 of November 1967 (relating to the Palestinian Question as a refugee problem and called for peaceful resolution to the conflict.
From Madrid to Oslo In October 1991, the PLO & the Arab states entered into direct peace negotiations with Israel in Madrid. No progress was made except through the channels of various secret negotiations that were started in December 1992 leading to the Oslo Accords. A First Principles Agreement was officially signed by the PLO and the Israel in Washington, USA on 13 September 1993.
The Palestinian Authority The real objectives of the peace process has been to relieve Israel of the burden of the consequences of the 1987 Palestinian Intifada, which had polarized and mobilized the Palestinians in the territories. The peace process produced the Palestinian Authority, whose main task as the Israelis understand it has been to provide Israel with security. By September 1994, the PLO leadership in exile had been allowed to return to Gaza and west Bank
Israeli settlements in Jerusalem before and after theSix day war in 1967
The Key Issues in dispute Right to Return –V–Violation of International Laws –R–Refugee Crisis Illegal Settlements –H–House Demolitions –R–Resources Occupation –D–Denial of Self Determination –H–Human Rights Violations
Homeless in their own country… house demolition !